Note

Click here to download the full example code

# Warm-up: numpy¶

A fully-connected ReLU network with one hidden layer and no biases, trained to predict y from x using Euclidean error.

This implementation uses numpy to manually compute the forward pass, loss, and backward pass.

A numpy array is a generic n-dimensional array; it does not know anything about deep learning or gradients or computational graphs, and is just a way to perform generic numeric computations.

```
import numpy as np
# N is batch size; D_in is input dimension;
# H is hidden dimension; D_out is output dimension.
N, D_in, H, D_out = 64, 1000, 100, 10
# Create random input and output data
x = np.random.randn(N, D_in)
y = np.random.randn(N, D_out)
# Randomly initialize weights
w1 = np.random.randn(D_in, H)
w2 = np.random.randn(H, D_out)
learning_rate = 1e-6
for t in range(500):
# Forward pass: compute predicted y
h = x.dot(w1)
h_relu = np.maximum(h, 0)
y_pred = h_relu.dot(w2)
# Compute and print loss
loss = np.square(y_pred - y).sum()
print(t, loss)
# Backprop to compute gradients of w1 and w2 with respect to loss
grad_y_pred = 2.0 * (y_pred - y)
grad_w2 = h_relu.T.dot(grad_y_pred)
grad_h_relu = grad_y_pred.dot(w2.T)
grad_h = grad_h_relu.copy()
grad_h[h < 0] = 0
grad_w1 = x.T.dot(grad_h)
# Update weights
w1 -= learning_rate * grad_w1
w2 -= learning_rate * grad_w2
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)