Note

Click here to download the full example code

# Transfer Learning for Computer Vision Tutorial¶

**Author**: Sasank Chilamkurthy

In this tutorial, you will learn how to train a convolutional neural network for image classification using transfer learning. You can read more about the transfer learning at cs231n notes

Quoting these notes,

In practice, very few people train an entire Convolutional Network from scratch (with random initialization), because it is relatively rare to have a dataset of sufficient size. Instead, it is common to pretrain a ConvNet on a very large dataset (e.g. ImageNet, which contains 1.2 million images with 1000 categories), and then use the ConvNet either as an initialization or a fixed feature extractor for the task of interest.

These two major transfer learning scenarios look as follows:

**Finetuning the convnet**: Instead of random initializaion, we initialize the network with a pretrained network, like the one that is trained on imagenet 1000 dataset. Rest of the training looks as usual.**ConvNet as fixed feature extractor**: Here, we will freeze the weights for all of the network except that of the final fully connected layer. This last fully connected layer is replaced with a new one with random weights and only this layer is trained.

```
# License: BSD
# Author: Sasank Chilamkurthy
from __future__ import print_function, division
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.optim as optim
from torch.optim import lr_scheduler
import numpy as np
import torchvision
from torchvision import datasets, models, transforms
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import time
import os
import copy
plt.ion() # interactive mode
```

## Load Data¶

We will use torchvision and torch.utils.data packages for loading the data.

The problem we’re going to solve today is to train a model to classify
**ants** and **bees**. We have about 120 training images each for ants and bees.
There are 75 validation images for each class. Usually, this is a very
small dataset to generalize upon, if trained from scratch. Since we
are using transfer learning, we should be able to generalize reasonably
well.

This dataset is a very small subset of imagenet.

Note

Download the data from here and extract it to the current directory.

```
# Data augmentation and normalization for training
# Just normalization for validation
data_transforms = {
'train': transforms.Compose([
transforms.RandomResizedCrop(224),
transforms.RandomHorizontalFlip(),
transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
]),
'val': transforms.Compose([
transforms.Resize(256),
transforms.CenterCrop(224),
transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
]),
}
data_dir = 'data/hymenoptera_data'
image_datasets = {x: datasets.ImageFolder(os.path.join(data_dir, x),
data_transforms[x])
for x in ['train', 'val']}
dataloaders = {x: torch.utils.data.DataLoader(image_datasets[x], batch_size=4,
shuffle=True, num_workers=4)
for x in ['train', 'val']}
dataset_sizes = {x: len(image_datasets[x]) for x in ['train', 'val']}
class_names = image_datasets['train'].classes
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
```

### Visualize a few images¶

Let’s visualize a few training images so as to understand the data augmentations.

```
def imshow(inp, title=None):
"""Imshow for Tensor."""
inp = inp.numpy().transpose((1, 2, 0))
mean = np.array([0.485, 0.456, 0.406])
std = np.array([0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
inp = std * inp + mean
inp = np.clip(inp, 0, 1)
plt.imshow(inp)
if title is not None:
plt.title(title)
plt.pause(0.001) # pause a bit so that plots are updated
# Get a batch of training data
inputs, classes = next(iter(dataloaders['train']))
# Make a grid from batch
out = torchvision.utils.make_grid(inputs)
imshow(out, title=[class_names[x] for x in classes])
```

## Training the model¶

Now, let’s write a general function to train a model. Here, we will illustrate:

- Scheduling the learning rate
- Saving the best model

In the following, parameter `scheduler`

is an LR scheduler object from
`torch.optim.lr_scheduler`

.

```
def train_model(model, criterion, optimizer, scheduler, num_epochs=25):
since = time.time()
best_model_wts = copy.deepcopy(model.state_dict())
best_acc = 0.0
for epoch in range(num_epochs):
print('Epoch {}/{}'.format(epoch, num_epochs - 1))
print('-' * 10)
# Each epoch has a training and validation phase
for phase in ['train', 'val']:
if phase == 'train':
model.train() # Set model to training mode
else:
model.eval() # Set model to evaluate mode
running_loss = 0.0
running_corrects = 0
# Iterate over data.
for inputs, labels in dataloaders[phase]:
inputs = inputs.to(device)
labels = labels.to(device)
# zero the parameter gradients
optimizer.zero_grad()
# forward
# track history if only in train
with torch.set_grad_enabled(phase == 'train'):
outputs = model(inputs)
_, preds = torch.max(outputs, 1)
loss = criterion(outputs, labels)
# backward + optimize only if in training phase
if phase == 'train':
loss.backward()
optimizer.step()
# statistics
running_loss += loss.item() * inputs.size(0)
running_corrects += torch.sum(preds == labels.data)
if phase == 'train':
scheduler.step()
epoch_loss = running_loss / dataset_sizes[phase]
epoch_acc = running_corrects.double() / dataset_sizes[phase]
print('{} Loss: {:.4f} Acc: {:.4f}'.format(
phase, epoch_loss, epoch_acc))
# deep copy the model
if phase == 'val' and epoch_acc > best_acc:
best_acc = epoch_acc
best_model_wts = copy.deepcopy(model.state_dict())
print()
time_elapsed = time.time() - since
print('Training complete in {:.0f}m {:.0f}s'.format(
time_elapsed // 60, time_elapsed % 60))
print('Best val Acc: {:4f}'.format(best_acc))
# load best model weights
model.load_state_dict(best_model_wts)
return model
```

### Visualizing the model predictions¶

Generic function to display predictions for a few images

```
def visualize_model(model, num_images=6):
was_training = model.training
model.eval()
images_so_far = 0
fig = plt.figure()
with torch.no_grad():
for i, (inputs, labels) in enumerate(dataloaders['val']):
inputs = inputs.to(device)
labels = labels.to(device)
outputs = model(inputs)
_, preds = torch.max(outputs, 1)
for j in range(inputs.size()[0]):
images_so_far += 1
ax = plt.subplot(num_images//2, 2, images_so_far)
ax.axis('off')
ax.set_title('predicted: {}'.format(class_names[preds[j]]))
imshow(inputs.cpu().data[j])
if images_so_far == num_images:
model.train(mode=was_training)
return
model.train(mode=was_training)
```

## Finetuning the convnet¶

Load a pretrained model and reset final fully connected layer.

```
model_ft = models.resnet18(pretrained=True)
num_ftrs = model_ft.fc.in_features
# Here the size of each output sample is set to 2.
# Alternatively, it can be generalized to nn.Linear(num_ftrs, len(class_names)).
model_ft.fc = nn.Linear(num_ftrs, 2)
model_ft = model_ft.to(device)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
# Observe that all parameters are being optimized
optimizer_ft = optim.SGD(model_ft.parameters(), lr=0.001, momentum=0.9)
# Decay LR by a factor of 0.1 every 7 epochs
exp_lr_scheduler = lr_scheduler.StepLR(optimizer_ft, step_size=7, gamma=0.1)
```

### Train and evaluate¶

It should take around 15-25 min on CPU. On GPU though, it takes less than a minute.

```
model_ft = train_model(model_ft, criterion, optimizer_ft, exp_lr_scheduler,
num_epochs=25)
```

```
visualize_model(model_ft)
```

## ConvNet as fixed feature extractor¶

Here, we need to freeze all the network except the final layer. We need
to set `requires_grad == False`

to freeze the parameters so that the
gradients are not computed in `backward()`

.

You can read more about this in the documentation here.

```
model_conv = torchvision.models.resnet18(pretrained=True)
for param in model_conv.parameters():
param.requires_grad = False
# Parameters of newly constructed modules have requires_grad=True by default
num_ftrs = model_conv.fc.in_features
model_conv.fc = nn.Linear(num_ftrs, 2)
model_conv = model_conv.to(device)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
# Observe that only parameters of final layer are being optimized as
# opposed to before.
optimizer_conv = optim.SGD(model_conv.fc.parameters(), lr=0.001, momentum=0.9)
# Decay LR by a factor of 0.1 every 7 epochs
exp_lr_scheduler = lr_scheduler.StepLR(optimizer_conv, step_size=7, gamma=0.1)
```

### Train and evaluate¶

On CPU this will take about half the time compared to previous scenario. This is expected as gradients don’t need to be computed for most of the network. However, forward does need to be computed.

```
model_conv = train_model(model_conv, criterion, optimizer_conv,
exp_lr_scheduler, num_epochs=25)
```

```
visualize_model(model_conv)
plt.ioff()
plt.show()
```

## Further Learning¶

If you would like to learn more about the applications of transfer learning, checkout our Quantized Transfer Learning for Computer Vision Tutorial.

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)