Note

Click here to download the full example code

# Warm-up: numpy¶

A third order polynomial, trained to predict \(y=\sin(x)\) from \(-\pi\) to \(pi\) by minimizing squared Euclidean distance.

This implementation uses numpy to manually compute the forward pass, loss, and backward pass.

A numpy array is a generic n-dimensional array; it does not know anything about deep learning or gradients or computational graphs, and is just a way to perform generic numeric computations.

```
import numpy as np
import math
# Create random input and output data
x = np.linspace(-math.pi, math.pi, 2000)
y = np.sin(x)
# Randomly initialize weights
a = np.random.randn()
b = np.random.randn()
c = np.random.randn()
d = np.random.randn()
learning_rate = 1e-6
for t in range(2000):
# Forward pass: compute predicted y
# y = a + b x + c x^2 + d x^3
y_pred = a + b * x + c * x ** 2 + d * x ** 3
# Compute and print loss
loss = np.square(y_pred - y).sum()
if t % 100 == 99:
print(t, loss)
# Backprop to compute gradients of a, b, c, d with respect to loss
grad_y_pred = 2.0 * (y_pred - y)
grad_a = grad_y_pred.sum()
grad_b = (grad_y_pred * x).sum()
grad_c = (grad_y_pred * x ** 2).sum()
grad_d = (grad_y_pred * x ** 3).sum()
# Update weights
a -= learning_rate * grad_a
b -= learning_rate * grad_b
c -= learning_rate * grad_c
d -= learning_rate * grad_d
print(f'Result: y = {a} + {b} x + {c} x^2 + {d} x^3')
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)