Note

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# PyTorch: Defining New autograd Functions¶

A fully-connected ReLU network with one hidden layer and no biases, trained to predict y from x by minimizing squared Euclidean distance.

This implementation computes the forward pass using operations on PyTorch Variables, and uses PyTorch autograd to compute gradients.

In this implementation we implement our own custom autograd function to perform the ReLU function.

```
import torch
class MyReLU(torch.autograd.Function):
"""
We can implement our own custom autograd Functions by subclassing
torch.autograd.Function and implementing the forward and backward passes
which operate on Tensors.
"""
@staticmethod
def forward(ctx, input):
"""
In the forward pass we receive a Tensor containing the input and return
a Tensor containing the output. ctx is a context object that can be used
to stash information for backward computation. You can cache arbitrary
objects for use in the backward pass using the ctx.save_for_backward method.
"""
ctx.save_for_backward(input)
return input.clamp(min=0)
@staticmethod
def backward(ctx, grad_output):
"""
In the backward pass we receive a Tensor containing the gradient of the loss
with respect to the output, and we need to compute the gradient of the loss
with respect to the input.
"""
input, = ctx.saved_tensors
grad_input = grad_output.clone()
grad_input[input < 0] = 0
return grad_input
dtype = torch.float
device = torch.device("cpu")
# device = torch.device("cuda:0") # Uncomment this to run on GPU
# torch.backends.cuda.matmul.allow_tf32 = False # Uncomment this to run on GPU
# The above line disables TensorFloat32. This a feature that allows
# networks to run at a much faster speed while sacrificing precision.
# Although TensorFloat32 works well on most real models, for our toy model
# in this tutorial, the sacrificed precision causes convergence issue.
# For more information, see:
# https://pytorch.org/docs/stable/notes/cuda.html#tensorfloat-32-tf32-on-ampere-devices
# N is batch size; D_in is input dimension;
# H is hidden dimension; D_out is output dimension.
N, D_in, H, D_out = 64, 1000, 100, 10
# Create random Tensors to hold input and outputs.
x = torch.randn(N, D_in, device=device, dtype=dtype)
y = torch.randn(N, D_out, device=device, dtype=dtype)
# Create random Tensors for weights.
w1 = torch.randn(D_in, H, device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
w2 = torch.randn(H, D_out, device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
learning_rate = 1e-6
for t in range(500):
# To apply our Function, we use Function.apply method. We alias this as 'relu'.
relu = MyReLU.apply
# Forward pass: compute predicted y using operations; we compute
# ReLU using our custom autograd operation.
y_pred = relu(x.mm(w1)).mm(w2)
# Compute and print loss
loss = (y_pred - y).pow(2).sum()
if t % 100 == 99:
print(t, loss.item())
# Use autograd to compute the backward pass.
loss.backward()
# Update weights using gradient descent
with torch.no_grad():
w1 -= learning_rate * w1.grad
w2 -= learning_rate * w2.grad
# Manually zero the gradients after updating weights
w1.grad.zero_()
w2.grad.zero_()
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)