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# PyTorch: Tensors and autograd¶

A third order polynomial, trained to predict \(y=\sin(x)\) from \(-\pi\) to \(\pi\) by minimizing squared Euclidean distance.

This implementation computes the forward pass using operations on PyTorch Tensors, and uses PyTorch autograd to compute gradients.

A PyTorch Tensor represents a node in a computational graph. If `x`

is a
Tensor that has `x.requires_grad=True`

then `x.grad`

is another Tensor
holding the gradient of `x`

with respect to some scalar value.

```
import torch
import math
dtype = torch.float
device = torch.device("cpu")
# device = torch.device("cuda:0") # Uncomment this to run on GPU
# Create Tensors to hold input and outputs.
# By default, requires_grad=False, which indicates that we do not need to
# compute gradients with respect to these Tensors during the backward pass.
x = torch.linspace(-math.pi, math.pi, 2000, device=device, dtype=dtype)
y = torch.sin(x)
# Create random Tensors for weights. For a third order polynomial, we need
# 4 weights: y = a + b x + c x^2 + d x^3
# Setting requires_grad=True indicates that we want to compute gradients with
# respect to these Tensors during the backward pass.
a = torch.randn((), device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
b = torch.randn((), device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
c = torch.randn((), device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
d = torch.randn((), device=device, dtype=dtype, requires_grad=True)
learning_rate = 1e-6
for t in range(2000):
# Forward pass: compute predicted y using operations on Tensors.
y_pred = a + b * x + c * x ** 2 + d * x ** 3
# Compute and print loss using operations on Tensors.
# Now loss is a Tensor of shape (1,)
# loss.item() gets the scalar value held in the loss.
loss = (y_pred - y).pow(2).sum()
if t % 100 == 99:
print(t, loss.item())
# Use autograd to compute the backward pass. This call will compute the
# gradient of loss with respect to all Tensors with requires_grad=True.
# After this call a.grad, b.grad. c.grad and d.grad will be Tensors holding
# the gradient of the loss with respect to a, b, c, d respectively.
loss.backward()
# Manually update weights using gradient descent. Wrap in torch.no_grad()
# because weights have requires_grad=True, but we don't need to track this
# in autograd.
with torch.no_grad():
a -= learning_rate * a.grad
b -= learning_rate * b.grad
c -= learning_rate * c.grad
d -= learning_rate * d.grad
# Manually zero the gradients after updating weights
a.grad = None
b.grad = None
c.grad = None
d.grad = None
print(f'Result: y = {a.item()} + {b.item()} x + {c.item()} x^2 + {d.item()} x^3')
```

**Total running time of the script:** ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)