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Saving and loading models across devices in PyTorch

There may be instances where you want to save and load your neural networks across different devices.

Introduction

Saving and loading models across devices is relatively straightforward using PyTorch. In this recipe, we will experiment with saving and loading models across CPUs and GPUs.

Setup

In order for every code block to run properly in this recipe, you must first change the runtime to “GPU” or higher. Once you do, we need to install torch if it isn’t already available.

pip install torch

Steps

  1. Import all necessary libraries for loading our data
  2. Define and intialize the neural network
  3. Save on a GPU, load on a CPU
  4. Save on a GPU, load on a GPU
  5. Save on a CPU, load on a GPU
  6. Saving and loading DataParallel models

1. Import necessary libraries for loading our data

For this recipe, we will use torch and its subsidiaries torch.nn and torch.optim.

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.optim as optim

2. Define and intialize the neural network

For sake of example, we will create a neural network for training images. To learn more see the Defining a Neural Network recipe.

class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, 6, 5)
        self.pool = nn.MaxPool2d(2, 2)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(6, 16, 5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(16 * 5 * 5, 120)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(120, 84)
        self.fc3 = nn.Linear(84, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv1(x)))
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv2(x)))
        x = x.view(-1, 16 * 5 * 5)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        x = self.fc3(x)
        return x

net = Net()
print(net)

3. Save on GPU, Load on CPU

When loading a model on a CPU that was trained with a GPU, pass torch.device('cpu') to the map_location argument in the torch.load() function.

# Specify a path to save to
PATH = "model.pt"

# Save
torch.save(net.state_dict(), PATH)

# Load
device = torch.device('cpu')
model = Net()
model.load_state_dict(torch.load(PATH, map_location=device))

In this case, the storages underlying the tensors are dynamically remapped to the CPU device using the map_location argument.

4. Save on GPU, Load on GPU

When loading a model on a GPU that was trained and saved on GPU, simply convert the initialized model to a CUDA optimized model using model.to(torch.device('cuda')).

Be sure to use the .to(torch.device('cuda')) function on all model inputs to prepare the data for the model.

# Save
torch.save(net.state_dict(), PATH)

# Load
device = torch.device("cuda")
model = Net()
model.load_state_dict(torch.load(PATH))
model.to(device)

Note that calling my_tensor.to(device) returns a new copy of my_tensor on GPU. It does NOT overwrite my_tensor. Therefore, remember to manually overwrite tensors: my_tensor = my_tensor.to(torch.device('cuda')).

5. Save on CPU, Load on GPU

When loading a model on a GPU that was trained and saved on CPU, set the map_location argument in the torch.load() function to cuda:device_id. This loads the model to a given GPU device.

Be sure to call model.to(torch.device('cuda')) to convert the model’s parameter tensors to CUDA tensors.

Finally, also be sure to use the .to(torch.device('cuda')) function on all model inputs to prepare the data for the CUDA optimized model.

# Save
torch.save(net.state_dict(), PATH)

# Load
device = torch.device("cuda")
model = Net()
# Choose whatever GPU device number you want
model.load_state_dict(torch.load(PATH, map_location="cuda:0"))
# Make sure to call input = input.to(device) on any input tensors that you feed to the model
model.to(device)

6. Saving torch.nn.DataParallel Models

torch.nn.DataParallel is a model wrapper that enables parallel GPU utilization.

To save a DataParallel model generically, save the model.module.state_dict(). This way, you have the flexibility to load the model any way you want to any device you want.

# Save
torch.save(net.module.state_dict(), PATH)

# Load to whatever device you want

Congratulations! You have successfully saved and loaded models across devices in PyTorch.

Learn More

Take a look at these other recipes to continue your learning:

  • TBD
  • TBD

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)

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