(beta) Compiling the optimizer with torch.compile

Author: Michael Lazos

The optimizer is a key algorithm for training any deep learning model. Since it is responsible for updating every model parameter, it can often become the bottleneck in training performance for large models. In this recipe, we will apply torch.compile to the optimizer to observe the GPU performance improvement.


This tutorial requires PyTorch 2.2.0 or later.

Model Setup

For this example, we’ll use a simple sequence of linear layers. Since we are only benchmarking the optimizer, the choice of model doesn’t matter because optimizer performance is a function of the number of parameters.

Depending on what machine you are using, your exact results may vary.

import torch

model = torch.nn.Sequential(
    *[torch.nn.Linear(1024, 1024, False, device="cuda") for _ in range(10)]
input = torch.rand(1024, device="cuda")
output = model(input)

Setting up and running the optimizer benchmark

In this example, we’ll use the Adam optimizer and create a helper function to wrap the step() in torch.compile().


torch.compile is only supported on cuda devices with compute capability >= 7.0

# exit cleanly if we are on a device that doesn't support torch.compile
if torch.cuda.get_device_capability() < (7, 0):
    print("Exiting because torch.compile is not supported on this device.")
    import sys

opt = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=0.01)

def fn():

# Let's define a helpful benchmarking function:
import torch.utils.benchmark as benchmark

def benchmark_torch_function_in_microseconds(f, *args, **kwargs):
    t0 = benchmark.Timer(
        stmt="f(*args, **kwargs)", globals={"args": args, "kwargs": kwargs, "f": f}
    return t0.blocked_autorange().mean * 1e6

# Warmup runs to compile the function
for _ in range(5):

eager_runtime = benchmark_torch_function_in_microseconds(opt.step)
compiled_runtime = benchmark_torch_function_in_microseconds(fn)

assert eager_runtime > compiled_runtime

print(f"eager runtime: {eager_runtime}us")
print(f"compiled runtime: {compiled_runtime}us")

Sample Results:

  • Eager runtime: 747.2437149845064us

  • Compiled runtime: 392.07384741178us

See Also

  • For an in-depth technical overview, see

Compiling the optimizer with PT2


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