torch.svd(input, some=True, compute_uv=True, *, out=None) -> (Tensor, Tensor, Tensor)

Computes the singular value decomposition of either a matrix or batch of matrices input. The singular value decomposition is represented as a namedtuple (U,S,V), such that input = U diag(S) Vᴴ, where Vᴴ is the transpose of V for the real-valued inputs, or the conjugate transpose of V for the complex-valued inputs. If input is a batch of tensors, then U, S, and V are also batched with the same batch dimensions as input.

If some is True (default), the method returns the reduced singular value decomposition i.e., if the last two dimensions of input are m and n, then the returned U and V matrices will contain only min(n, m) orthonormal columns.

If compute_uv is False, the returned U and V will be zero-filled matrices of shape (m × m) and (n × n) respectively, and the same device as input. The some argument has no effect when compute_uv is False.

Supports input of float, double, cfloat and cdouble data types. The dtypes of U and V are the same as input’s. S will always be real-valued, even if input is complex.


torch.svd() is deprecated. Please use torch.linalg.svd() instead, which is similar to NumPy’s numpy.linalg.svd.


Differences with torch.linalg.svd():


The singular values are returned in descending order. If input is a batch of matrices, then the singular values of each matrix in the batch is returned in descending order.


The implementation of SVD on CPU uses the LAPACK routine ?gesdd (a divide-and-conquer algorithm) instead of ?gesvd for speed. Analogously, the SVD on GPU uses the cuSOLVER routines gesvdj and gesvdjBatched on CUDA 10.1.243 and later, and uses the MAGMA routine gesdd on earlier versions of CUDA.


The returned matrix U will be transposed, i.e. with strides U.contiguous().transpose(-2, -1).stride().


Gradients computed using U and V may be unstable if input is not full rank or has non-unique singular values.


When some = False, the gradients on U[..., :, min(m, n):] and V[..., :, min(m, n):] will be ignored in backward as those vectors can be arbitrary bases of the subspaces.


The S tensor can only be used to compute gradients if compute_uv is True.


With the complex-valued input the backward operation works correctly only for gauge invariant loss functions. Please look at Gauge problem in AD for more details.


Since U and V of an SVD is not unique, each vector can be multiplied by an arbitrary phase factor eiϕe^{i \phi} while the SVD result is still correct. Different platforms, like Numpy, or inputs on different device types, may produce different U and V tensors.

  • input (Tensor) – the input tensor of size (*, m, n) where * is zero or more batch dimensions consisting of (m × n) matrices.

  • some (bool, optional) – controls whether to compute the reduced or full decomposition, and consequently the shape of returned U and V. Defaults to True.

  • compute_uv (bool, optional) – option whether to compute U and V or not. Defaults to True.

Keyword Arguments

out (tuple, optional) – the output tuple of tensors


>>> a = torch.randn(5, 3)
>>> a
tensor([[ 0.2364, -0.7752,  0.6372],
        [ 1.7201,  0.7394, -0.0504],
        [-0.3371, -1.0584,  0.5296],
        [ 0.3550, -0.4022,  1.5569],
        [ 0.2445, -0.0158,  1.1414]])
>>> u, s, v = torch.svd(a)
>>> u
tensor([[ 0.4027,  0.0287,  0.5434],
        [-0.1946,  0.8833,  0.3679],
        [ 0.4296, -0.2890,  0.5261],
        [ 0.6604,  0.2717, -0.2618],
        [ 0.4234,  0.2481, -0.4733]])
>>> s
tensor([2.3289, 2.0315, 0.7806])
>>> v
tensor([[-0.0199,  0.8766,  0.4809],
        [-0.5080,  0.4054, -0.7600],
        [ 0.8611,  0.2594, -0.4373]])
>>> torch.dist(a,, torch.diag(s)), v.t()))
>>> a_big = torch.randn(7, 5, 3)
>>> u, s, v = torch.svd(a_big)
>>> torch.dist(a_big, torch.matmul(torch.matmul(u, torch.diag_embed(s)), v.transpose(-2, -1)))


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