Source code for torchvision.utils

from typing import Union, Optional, List, Tuple, Text, BinaryIO
import pathlib
import torch
import math
import warnings
import numpy as np
from PIL import Image, ImageDraw, ImageFont, ImageColor

__all__ = ["make_grid", "save_image", "draw_bounding_boxes"]

[docs]@torch.no_grad() def make_grid( tensor: Union[torch.Tensor, List[torch.Tensor]], nrow: int = 8, padding: int = 2, normalize: bool = False, value_range: Optional[Tuple[int, int]] = None, scale_each: bool = False, pad_value: int = 0, **kwargs ) -> torch.Tensor: """Make a grid of images. Args: tensor (Tensor or list): 4D mini-batch Tensor of shape (B x C x H x W) or a list of images all of the same size. nrow (int, optional): Number of images displayed in each row of the grid. The final grid size is ``(B / nrow, nrow)``. Default: ``8``. padding (int, optional): amount of padding. Default: ``2``. normalize (bool, optional): If True, shift the image to the range (0, 1), by the min and max values specified by :attr:`range`. Default: ``False``. value_range (tuple, optional): tuple (min, max) where min and max are numbers, then these numbers are used to normalize the image. By default, min and max are computed from the tensor. scale_each (bool, optional): If ``True``, scale each image in the batch of images separately rather than the (min, max) over all images. Default: ``False``. pad_value (float, optional): Value for the padded pixels. Default: ``0``. Example: See this notebook `here <>`_ """ if not (torch.is_tensor(tensor) or (isinstance(tensor, list) and all(torch.is_tensor(t) for t in tensor))): raise TypeError(f'tensor or list of tensors expected, got {type(tensor)}') if "range" in kwargs.keys(): warning = "range will be deprecated, please use value_range instead." warnings.warn(warning) value_range = kwargs["range"] # if list of tensors, convert to a 4D mini-batch Tensor if isinstance(tensor, list): tensor = torch.stack(tensor, dim=0) if tensor.dim() == 2: # single image H x W tensor = tensor.unsqueeze(0) if tensor.dim() == 3: # single image if tensor.size(0) == 1: # if single-channel, convert to 3-channel tensor =, tensor, tensor), 0) tensor = tensor.unsqueeze(0) if tensor.dim() == 4 and tensor.size(1) == 1: # single-channel images tensor =, tensor, tensor), 1) if normalize is True: tensor = tensor.clone() # avoid modifying tensor in-place if value_range is not None: assert isinstance(value_range, tuple), \ "value_range has to be a tuple (min, max) if specified. min and max are numbers" def norm_ip(img, low, high): img.clamp_(min=low, max=high) img.sub_(low).div_(max(high - low, 1e-5)) def norm_range(t, value_range): if value_range is not None: norm_ip(t, value_range[0], value_range[1]) else: norm_ip(t, float(t.min()), float(t.max())) if scale_each is True: for t in tensor: # loop over mini-batch dimension norm_range(t, value_range) else: norm_range(tensor, value_range) if tensor.size(0) == 1: return tensor.squeeze(0) # make the mini-batch of images into a grid nmaps = tensor.size(0) xmaps = min(nrow, nmaps) ymaps = int(math.ceil(float(nmaps) / xmaps)) height, width = int(tensor.size(2) + padding), int(tensor.size(3) + padding) num_channels = tensor.size(1) grid = tensor.new_full((num_channels, height * ymaps + padding, width * xmaps + padding), pad_value) k = 0 for y in range(ymaps): for x in range(xmaps): if k >= nmaps: break # Tensor.copy_() is a valid method but seems to be missing from the stubs # grid.narrow(1, y * height + padding, height - padding).narrow( # type: ignore[attr-defined] 2, x * width + padding, width - padding ).copy_(tensor[k]) k = k + 1 return grid
[docs]@torch.no_grad() def save_image( tensor: Union[torch.Tensor, List[torch.Tensor]], fp: Union[Text, pathlib.Path, BinaryIO], format: Optional[str] = None, **kwargs ) -> None: """Save a given Tensor into an image file. Args: tensor (Tensor or list): Image to be saved. If given a mini-batch tensor, saves the tensor as a grid of images by calling ``make_grid``. fp (string or file object): A filename or a file object format(Optional): If omitted, the format to use is determined from the filename extension. If a file object was used instead of a filename, this parameter should always be used. **kwargs: Other arguments are documented in ``make_grid``. """ grid = make_grid(tensor, **kwargs) # Add 0.5 after unnormalizing to [0, 255] to round to nearest integer ndarr = grid.mul(255).add_(0.5).clamp_(0, 255).permute(1, 2, 0).to('cpu', torch.uint8).numpy() im = Image.fromarray(ndarr), format=format)
[docs]@torch.no_grad() def draw_bounding_boxes( image: torch.Tensor, boxes: torch.Tensor, labels: Optional[List[str]] = None, colors: Optional[List[Union[str, Tuple[int, int, int]]]] = None, fill: Optional[bool] = False, width: int = 1, font: Optional[str] = None, font_size: int = 10 ) -> torch.Tensor: """ Draws bounding boxes on given image. The values of the input image should be uint8 between 0 and 255. If filled, Resulting Tensor should be saved as PNG image. Args: image (Tensor): Tensor of shape (C x H x W) boxes (Tensor): Tensor of size (N, 4) containing bounding boxes in (xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax) format. Note that the boxes are absolute coordinates with respect to the image. In other words: `0 <= xmin < xmax < W` and `0 <= ymin < ymax < H`. labels (List[str]): List containing the labels of bounding boxes. colors (List[Union[str, Tuple[int, int, int]]]): List containing the colors of bounding boxes. The colors can be represented as `str` or `Tuple[int, int, int]`. fill (bool): If `True` fills the bounding box with specified color. width (int): Width of bounding box. font (str): A filename containing a TrueType font. If the file is not found in this filename, the loader may also search in other directories, such as the `fonts/` directory on Windows or `/Library/Fonts/`, `/System/Library/Fonts/` and `~/Library/Fonts/` on macOS. font_size (int): The requested font size in points. """ if not isinstance(image, torch.Tensor): raise TypeError(f"Tensor expected, got {type(image)}") elif image.dtype != torch.uint8: raise ValueError(f"Tensor uint8 expected, got {image.dtype}") elif image.dim() != 3: raise ValueError("Pass individual images, not batches") ndarr = image.permute(1, 2, 0).numpy() img_to_draw = Image.fromarray(ndarr) img_boxes = if fill: draw = ImageDraw.Draw(img_to_draw, "RGBA") else: draw = ImageDraw.Draw(img_to_draw) txt_font = ImageFont.load_default() if font is None else ImageFont.truetype(font=font, size=font_size) for i, bbox in enumerate(img_boxes): if colors is None: color = None else: color = colors[i] if fill: if color is None: fill_color = (255, 255, 255, 100) elif isinstance(color, str): # This will automatically raise Error if rgb cannot be parsed. fill_color = ImageColor.getrgb(color) + (100,) elif isinstance(color, tuple): fill_color = color + (100,) draw.rectangle(bbox, width=width, outline=color, fill=fill_color) else: draw.rectangle(bbox, width=width, outline=color) if labels is not None: draw.text((bbox[0], bbox[1]), labels[i], fill=color, font=txt_font) return torch.from_numpy(np.array(img_to_draw)).permute(2, 0, 1)


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