TorchDynamo Troubleshooting

Author: Michael Lazos

TorchDynamo is still in active development, and many of the reasons for graph breaks and excessive recompilation will be fixed with upcoming support for tracing dynamic tensor shapes, more careful choices for guards and better tuned heuristics.

In the meantime, you may need to diagnose a particular issue and determine if it is easy to work around with a change to your model, or file an issue for support.

Also, we are actively developing debug tools, profilers, and improving our errors/warnings. Please give us feedback if you have an issue with this infra, or an idea for an improvement. Below is a table of the available tools and their typical usage. For additional help see Diagnosing Runtime Errors.





Info logging

View summarized steps of compilation

torch._dynamo.config.log_level = logging.INFO

Debug logging

View detailed steps of compilation (print every instruction traced)

torch._dynamo.config.log_level = logging.DEBUG and torch._dynamo.config.verbose = True

Minifier for any backend

Find smallest subgraph which reproduces errors for any backend

set environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER="dynamo"

Minifier for TorchInductor

If the error is known to occur after AOTAutograd` find smallest subgraph wich reproduces errors during TorchInductor lowering

set environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER="aot"

Dynamo accuracy minifier

Finds the smallest subgraph which reproduces an accuracy issue between an eager model model and optimized model, when you suspect the problem is in AOTAutograd


Inductor accuracy minifier

Finds the smallest subgraph which reproduces an accuracy issue between an eager model model and optimized model, when you suspect the problem is in the backend (e.g., inductor). If this doesn’t work, try the Dynamo accuracy minifier instead.



Find graph breaks and display reasoning for them

torch._dynamo.explain(fn, *inputs)


Record and replay frames which to reproduce errors during graph capture

torch._dynamo.config.replay_record_enabled = True

TorchDynamo function name filtering

Only compile functions with the given name to reduce noise when debugging an issue

set environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_DEBUG_FUNCTION=<name>

TorchInductor Debug logging

Print general TorchInductor debug info and generated Triton/C++ code

torch._inductor.config.debug = True

TorchInductor Tracing

Show time taken in each TorchInductor stage + output code and graph visualization

set the environment variable TORCH_COMPILE_DEBUG=1 or torch._inductor.config.trace.enabled = True

Diagnosing Runtime Errors

Below is the TorchDynamo compiler stack.

At a high level, the TorchDynamo stack consists of a graph capture from Python code (TorchDynamo) and a backend compiler. In this example, the backend compiler consists of backward graph tracing (AOTAutograd) and graph lowering (TorchInductor)*. Errors can occur in any component of the stack and will provide full stack traces.

You may use info logging (torch._dynamo.config.log_level = logging.INFO) and look for Step #: ... outputs in order to determine in which component the error has occurred. Logs are made at the beginning and end of each step, so the step that an error should correspond to is the most recent logged step whose end has not yet been logged. The steps correspond to the following parts of the stack (according to the image above):






Compiler Backend



The beginning and end of AOTAutograd is currently not logged, but we plan to add it soon.

If info logging is insufficient, then there are also some backend options which can enable you to determine which component is causing the error if you’re unable to understand the error message that is generated. These are the following:

  • "eager": only runs torchdynamo forward graph capture and then runs the captured graph with PyTorch. This provides an indication as to whether TorchDynamo is raising the error.

  • "aot_eager": runs torchdynamo to capture a forward graph, and then AOTAutograd to trace the backward graph without any additional backend compiler steps. PyTorch eager will then be used to run the forward and backward graphs. This is useful to narrow down the issue to AOTAutograd.

The general procedure to narrow down an issue is the following:

  1. Run your program with the "eager" backend. If the error no longer occurs, the issue is in the backend compiler that is being used (if using TorchInductor, proceed to step 2. If not, see this section). If the error still occurs with the "eager" backend, it is an error while running torchdynamo.

  2. This step is only necessary if TorchInductor is used as the backend compiler. Run the model with the "aot_eager" backend. If this backend raises an error then the error is occurring during AOTAutograd tracing. If the error no longer occurs with this backend, then the error is in TorchInductor*.

Each of these cases are analyzed in the following sections.


The TorchInductor backend consists of both AOTAutograd tracing and the TorchInductor compiler itself. We will disambiguate by referring to TorchInductor as the backend, and TorchInductor lowering as the phase which lowers the graph traced by AOTAutograd.

Torchdynamo Errors

If the error that is generated occurs with the "eager" backend, then TorchDynamo is the most likely source of the error. Here is a sample code which will generate an error.

import torch

import torch._dynamo as dynamo

def test_assertion_error():
    y = torch.ones(200, 200)
    z = {y: 5}
    return z

compiled_test_assertion_error = torch.compile(test_assertion_error, backend="eager")


Which will generate the following error:

torch._dynamo.convert_frame: [ERROR] WON'T CONVERT test_assertion_error /scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/../test/ line 26
due to:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/torchdynamo/", line 837, in BUILD_MAP
    assert isinstance(k, ConstantVariable) or (

from user code:
   File "/scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/../test/", line 34, in test_assertion_error
    z = {y: 5}

Set torch._dynamo.config.verbose=True for more information

As the message suggests you can set torch._dynamo.config.verbose=True to get a full stack trace to both the error in TorchDynamo and the user code. In addition to this flag, you can also set the log_level of torchdynamo through torch._dynamo.config.log_level. The available levels are the following:

  • logging.DEBUG: Print every instruction that is encountered in addition to all below log levels.

  • logging.INFO: Print each function that is compiled (original and modified bytecode) and the graph that is captured in addition to all below log levels.

  • logging.WARNING (default): Print graph breaks in addition to all below log levels.

  • logging.ERROR: Print errors only.

If a model is sufficiently large, the logs can become overwhelming. If an error occurs deep within a model’s Python code, it can be useful to execute only the frame in which the error occurs to enable easier debugging. There are two tools available to enable this:

  • Setting the environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_DEBUG_FUNCTION to the desired function name will only run torchdynamo on functions with that name.

  • Enabling the record/replay tool (set torch._dynamo.config.replay_record_enabled = True) which dumps anexecution record when an error is encountered. This record can then be replayed to run only the frame where an error occurred.

TorchInductor Errors

If the error does not occur with the "eager" backend, then the backend compiler is the source of the error (example error). There are different choices for backend compilers for TorchDynamo, with TorchInductor or nvfuser fitting the needs of most users. This section focuses on TorchInductor as the motivating example, but some tools will be usable with other backend compilers.

Below is the portion of the stack which we are focusing on:

With TorchInductor as the chosen backend, AOTAutograd is used to generate the backward graph from the forward graph captured by torchdynamo. It is important to note that errors can occur during this tracing and also while TorchInductor lowers the forward and backward graphs to GPU code or C++. A model can often consist of hundreds or thousands of FX nodes, so narrowing the exact nodes where this problem occurred can be very difficult. Fortunately, there are tools available to automatically minify these input graphs to the nodes which are causing the issue. The first step is to determine whether the error occurs during tracing of the backward graph with AOTAutograd or during TorchInductor lowering. As mentioned above in step 2, the "aot_eager" backend can be used to run only AOTAutograd in isolation without lowering. If the error still occurs with this backend, this indicates that the error is occurring during AOTAutograd tracing.

Here is an example:

import torch

import torch._dynamo as dynamo

model = torch.nn.Sequential(*[torch.nn.Linear(200, 200) for _ in range(5)])

def test_backend_error():

    y = torch.ones(200, 200)
    x = torch.ones(200, 200)
    z = x + y
    a = torch.ops.aten._foobar(z)  # dummy function which errors
    return model(a)

compiled_test_backend_error = torch.compile(test_backend_error, backend="inductor")

Running this should give you this error with a longer stack trace below it:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/torchinductor/", line 246, in call_function
    return lowerings[target](*args, **kwargs)
  File "/scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/torchinductor/", line 185, in wrapped
    return decomp_fn(*args, **kwargs)
  File "/scratch/mlazos/torchdynamo/torchinductor/", line 810, in _foobar
    assert False

error with full stack trace

If you then change torch.compile(backend="inductor") to torch.compile(backend="aot_eager"), it will run without error, because the issue is in the TorchInductor lowering process, not in AOTAutograd.

Minifying TorchInductor Errors

From here, let’s run the minifier to get a minimal repro. Setting the environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER=“aot” (or setting torch._dynamo.config.repro_after="aot" directly) will generate a Python program which reduces the graph produced by AOTAutograd to the smallest subgraph which reproduces the error. (See below for an example where we minify the graph produced by torchdynamo) Running the program with this environment variable should show nearly identical output, with an additional line indicating where has been written to. The output directory is configurable by setting torch._dynamo.config.base_dir to a valid directory name. The final step is to run the minifier and check that it runs successfully. A successful run looks like this. If the minifier runs successfully, it generates runnable python code which reproduces the exact error. For our example this is the following code:

import torch
from torch import tensor, device
import torch.fx as fx
from torch._dynamo.testing import rand_strided
from math import inf
from torch.fx.experimental.proxy_tensor import make_fx

# torch version: 1.13.0a0+gitfddfc44
# torch cuda version: 11.6
# torch git version: fddfc4488afb207971c54ad4bf58130fdc8a4dc5

# CUDA Info:
# nvcc: NVIDIA (R) Cuda compiler driver
# Copyright (c) 2005-2022 NVIDIA Corporation
# Built on Thu_Feb_10_18:23:41_PST_2022
# Cuda compilation tools, release 11.6, V11.6.112
# Build cuda_11.6.r11.6/compiler.30978841_0

# GPU Hardware Info:
# NVIDIA A100-SXM4-40GB : 8

from torch.nn import *

class Repro(torch.nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):

    def forward(self, add):
        _foobar = torch.ops.aten._foobar.default(add);  add = None
        return (_foobar,)

args = [((200, 200), (200, 1), torch.float32, 'cpu')]
args = [rand_strided(shape, stride, dtype, device) for shape, stride, dtype, device in args]
mod = make_fx(Repro())(*args)
from torch._inductor.compile_fx import compile_fx_inner

compiled = compile_fx_inner(mod, args)

The forward method of the Repro module contains the exact op which causes the issue. When filing an issue, please include any minified repros to aid in debugging.

Minifying Backend Compiler Errors

With backend compilers other than TorchInductor the process for finding the subgraph causing the error is nearly identical to the procedure in errors in TorchInductor with one important caveat. Namely, that the minifier will now be run on the graph that is traced by TorchDynamo, not the output graph of AOTAutograd. Let’s walk through an example.

import torch

import torch._dynamo as dynamo

model = torch.nn.Sequential(*[torch.nn.Linear(200, 200) for _ in range(5)])
# toy compiler which fails if graph contains relu
def toy_compiler(gm: torch.fx.GraphModule, _):
    for node in gm.graph.nodes:
        if == torch.relu:
            assert False

    return gm

def test_backend_error():
    y = torch.ones(200, 200)
    x = torch.ones(200, 200)
    z = x + y
    a = torch.relu(z)
    return model(a)

compiled_test_backend_error = torch.compile(test_backend_error, backend=toy_compiler)

In order to run the code after TorchDynamo has traced the forward graph, you can use the TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER environment variable. Running this program with TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER=“dynamo” (or torch._dynamo.config.repro_after="dynamo") should produce this outputand the following code in {torch._dynamo.config.base_dir}/


The other option for TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER are "aot", which will run the minifier after the backward graph has been generated.

import torch
import torch._dynamo as dynamo
from torch import tensor, device
import torch.fx as fx
from torch._dynamo.testing import rand_strided
from math import inf
from torch._dynamo.debug_utils import run_fwd_maybe_bwd

from torch.nn import *

class Repro(torch.nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):

    def forward(self, add):
        relu = torch.relu(add);  add = None
        return (relu,)

mod = Repro().cuda()
opt_mod = torch.compile(mod, backend="None")

args = [((200, 200), (200, 1), torch.float32, 'cpu', False)]
args = [rand_strided(sh, st, dt, dev).requires_grad_(rg) for (sh, st, dt, dev, rg) in args]

with torch.cuda.amp.autocast(enabled=False):
    ref = run_fwd_maybe_bwd(mod, args)
    res = run_fwd_maybe_bwd(opt_mod, args)

The minifier successfully reduced the graph to the op that raises the error in toy_compiler. The other difference from the procedure in TorhInductor Errors is that the minifier is automatically run after encountering a backend compiler error. After a successful run, the minifier writes to torch._dynamo.config.base_dir.

Performance Profiling

Accessing TorchDynamo Profiler

TorchDynamo has a builtin stats function for collecting and displaying the time spent in each compilation phase. These stats can be accessed by calling torch._dynamo.utils.compile_times() after executing Torch._Dynamo. By default, this returns a string representation of the compile times spent in each TorchDynamo function by name.

TorchInductor Debug Tracing

TorchInductor has a builtin stats and trace function for displaying time spent in each compilation phase, output code, output graph visualization and IR dump. This is a debugging tool designed to make it easier to understand and troubleshoot the internals of TorchInductor.

Setting the environment variable TORCH_COMPILE_DEBUG=1 will cause a debug trace directory to be created and printed:

$ env TORCH_COMPILE_DEBUG=1 python
torch._inductor.debug: [WARNING] model_forward_0 debug trace: /tmp/torchinductor_jansel/rh/crhwqgmbqtchqt3v3wdeeszjb352m4vbjbvdovaaeqpzi7tdjxqr.debug

Here is an example debug directory output for the test program:

        torch.nn.Linear(10, 10),

Each file in that debug trace can be enabled and disabled through torch._inductor.config.trace.*. The profile and the diagram are both disabled by default since they are expensive to generate.

A single node in this new debug format looks like:

buf1: SchedulerNode(ComputedBuffer)
buf1.writes =
    {   MemoryDep(name='buf1', index=0, size=()),
        MemoryDep(name='buf1', index=0, size=(s0,))}
buf1.unmet_dependencies = {MemoryDep(name='buf0', index=c0, size=(s0,))}
buf1.met_dependencies = {MemoryDep(name='primals_2', index=c0, size=(s0,))} = cuda:0 = (1, s0)
buf1.sizes = ([], [s0])
class buf1_loop_body:
    var_ranges = {z0: s0}
    index0 = z0
    index1 = 0
    def body(self, ops):
        get_index = self.get_index('index0')
        load = ops.load('buf0', get_index, False)
        get_index_1 = self.get_index('index0')
        load_1 = ops.load('primals_2', get_index_1, False)
        add = ops.add(load, load_1)
        get_index_2 = self.get_index('index1')
        reduction = ops.reduction('buf1', torch.float32, torch.float32, 'sum', get_index_2, add)
        return reduction

See the example debug directory output for more examples.

Graph Breaks

Given a program like this:

def some_fun(x):

compiled_fun = torch.compile(some_fun, ...)

TorchDynamo will attempt to compile all of the torch/tensor operations within some_fun into a single FX graph, but it may fail to capture everything into one graph.

Some graph break reasons are insurmountable to TorchDynamo, and can’t be easily fixed. - calling into a C extension other than torch is invisible to torchdynamo, and could do arbitrary things without TorchDynamo being able to introduce necessary guards to ensure that the compiled program would be safe to reuse. Graph breaks can hinder performance if the resulting fragments are small. To maximize performance, it’s important to have as few graph breaks as possible.

Identifying the Cause of a Graph Break

To identify all graph breaks in a program and the associated reasons for the breaks, torch._dynamo.explain can be used. This tool runs TorchDynamo on the supplied function and aggregates the graph breaks that are encountered. Here is an example usage:

import torch
import torch._dynamo as dynamo
def toy_example(a, b):
    x = a / (torch.abs(a) + 1)
    if b.sum() < 0:
        b = b * -1
    return x * b
explanation, out_guards, graphs, ops_per_graph = dynamo.explain(toy_example, torch.randn(10), torch.randn(10))
Dynamo produced 3 graphs, with 2 graph break and 6 ops.
 Break reasons:
1. call_function BuiltinVariable(print) [ConstantVariable(str)] {}
   File "", line 16, in toy_example

2. generic_jump
   File "", line 17, in toy_example
    if b.sum() < 0:

Outputs include:

  • out_guards - a list of lists where each sublist contains the guards that must pass to ensure the traced graphs are valid.

  • graphs - a list of graph modules which were successfully traced.

  • ops_per_graph - a list of lists where each sublist contains the ops that are run in the graph.

To throw an error on the first graph break encountered, use the nopython mode. This mode disables TorchDynamo’s Python fallback, and only succeeds if the entire program is convertible into a single graph. Example usage:

def toy_example(a, b):

compiled_toy = torch.compile(toy_example, fullgraph=True, backend=<compiler>)

Excessive Recompilation

When TorchDynamo compiles a function (or part of one), it makes certain assumptions about locals and globals in order to allow compiler optimizations, and expresses these assumptions as guards that check particular values at runtime. If any of these guards fail, Dynamo will recompile that function (or part) up to torch._dynamo.config.cache_size_limit times. If your program is hitting the cache limit, you will first need to determine which guard is failing and what part of your program is triggering it.

The compile profiler automates the process of setting TorchDynamo’s cache limit to 1 and running your program under an observation-only ‘compiler’ that records the causes of any guard failures. You should be sure to run your program for at least as long (as many iterations) as you were running when you ran into trouble, and the profiler will accumulate statistics over this duration.

If your program exhibits a bounded amount of dynamism, you may be able to tune the TorchDynamo cache limit to allow for each variation to be compiled and cached, but if the cache limit is too high you may find the cost of recompilation outweighs any optimization benefits.

torch._dynamo.config.cache_size_limit = <your desired cache limit>

Torchdynamo plans to support many common cases of dynamic tensor shapes, such as varying batch size or sequence length. It does not plan to support rank-dynamism. In the meantime, setting a specific cache limit can be used in coordination with bucketing techniques to achieve an acceptable number of recompilations for some dynamic models.

from torch._dynamo.utils import CompileProfiler

prof = CompileProfiler()

def my_model():

profiler_model = torch.compile(my_model, backend=prof)

Accuracy Debugging

Accuracy issues can also be minified if you set the environment variable TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_LEVEL=4, it operates with a similar git bisect model and a full repro might be something like TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_AFTER="aot" TORCHDYNAMO_REPRO_LEVEL=4 the reason we need this is downstream compilers will codegen code whether it’s Triton code or the C++ backend, the numerics from those downstream compilers can be different in subtle ways yet have dramatic impact on your training stability. So the accuracy debugger is very useful for us to detect bugs in our codegen or with a backend compiler.

File an Issue

If you experience problems with TorchDynamo, file a GitHub issue.

Before filing an issue, read over the README, TROUBLESHOOTING, and search for similar issues.

When filing an issue, include the information about your OS, Python< PyTorch, CUDA, and Triton versions info by running:

python tools/
  • A minimal repro script if possible, which can be generated by running Minifier

  • A description of the error

  • The expected behavior

  • A log (set torch._dynamo.config.log_file to a valid file name to dump the logs to a file and torch._dynamo.config.log_level = logging.DEBUG and torch._dynamo.config.verbose = True)


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