Welcome to the migration guide for PyTorch 0.4.0. In this release we introduced many exciting new features and critical bug fixes, with the goal of providing users a better and cleaner interface. In this guide, we will cover the most important changes in migrating existing code from previous versions:
Tensors
andVariables
have merged Support for 0dimensional (scalar)
Tensors
 Deprecation of the
volatile
flag dtypes
,devices
, and NumpystyleTensor
creation functions Writing deviceagnostic code
 New edgecase constraints on names of submodules, parameters, and buffers in
nn.Module
Merging Tensor
and Variable
and classes
torch.Tensor
and torch.autograd.Variable
are now the same class. More precisely, torch.Tensor
is capable of tracking history and behaves like the old Variable
; Variable
wrapping continues to work as before but returns an object of type torch.Tensor
. This means that you don’t need the Variable
wrapper everywhere in your code anymore.
The type()
of a Tensor
has changed
Note also that the type()
of a Tensor no longer reflects the data type. Use isinstance()
or x.type()
instead:
>>> x = torch.DoubleTensor([1, 1, 1])
>>> print(type(x)) # was torch.DoubleTensor
"<class 'torch.Tensor'>"
>>> print(x.type()) # OK: 'torch.DoubleTensor'
'torch.DoubleTensor'
>>> print(isinstance(x, torch.DoubleTensor)) # OK: True
True
When does autograd
start tracking history now?
requires_grad
, the central flag for autograd
, is now an attribute on Tensors
. The same rules previously used for Variables
applies to Tensors
; autograd
starts tracking history when any input Tensor
of an operation has requires_grad=True
. For example,
>>> x = torch.ones(1) # create a tensor with requires_grad=False (default)
>>> x.requires_grad
False
>>> y = torch.ones(1) # another tensor with requires_grad=False
>>> z = x + y
>>> # both inputs have requires_grad=False. so does the output
>>> z.requires_grad
False
>>> # then autograd won't track this computation. let's verify!
>>> z.backward()
RuntimeError: element 0 of tensors does not require grad and does not have a grad_fn
>>>
>>> # now create a tensor with requires_grad=True
>>> w = torch.ones(1, requires_grad=True)
>>> w.requires_grad
True
>>> # add to the previous result that has require_grad=False
>>> total = w + z
>>> # the total sum now requires grad!
>>> total.requires_grad
True
>>> # autograd can compute the gradients as well
>>> total.backward()
>>> w.grad
tensor([ 1.])
>>> # and no computation is wasted to compute gradients for x, y and z, which don't require grad
>>> z.grad == x.grad == y.grad == None
True
Manipulating requires_grad
flag
Other than directly setting the attribute, you can change this flag inplace
using my_tensor.requires_grad_()
, or, as in the above example, at creation time by passing it in as an argument (default is False
), e.g.,
>>> existing_tensor.requires_grad_()
>>> existing_tensor.requires_grad
True
>>> my_tensor = torch.zeros(3, 4, requires_grad=True)
>>> my_tensor.requires_grad
True
What about .data?
.data
was the primary way to get the underlying Tensor
from a Variable
. After this merge, calling y = x.data
still has similar semantics. So y
will be a Tensor
that shares the same data with x
, is unrelated with the computation history of x
, and has requires_grad=False
.
However, .data
can be unsafe in some cases. Any changes on x.data
wouldn’t be tracked by autograd
, and the computed gradients would be incorrect if x
is needed in a backward pass. A safer alternative is to use x.detach()
, which also returns a Tensor
that shares data with requires_grad=False
, but will have its inplace changes reported by autograd
if x
is needed in backward.
Here is an example of the difference between .data
and x.detach()
(and why we recommend using detach
in general).
If you use Tensor.detach()
, the gradient computation is guaranteed to be correct.
>>> a = torch.tensor([1,2,3.], requires_grad = True)
>>> out = a.sigmoid()
>>> c = out.detach()
>>> c.zero_()
tensor([ 0., 0., 0.])
>>> out # modified by c.zero_() !!
tensor([ 0., 0., 0.])
>>> out.sum().backward() # Requires the original value of out, but that was overwritten by c.zero_()
RuntimeError: one of the variables needed for gradient computation has been modified by an
However, using Tensor.data
can be unsafe and can easly result in incorrect gradients when a tensor is required for gradient computation but modified inplace.
>>> a = torch.tensor([1,2,3.], requires_grad = True)
>>> out = a.sigmoid()
>>> c = out.data
>>> c.zero_()
tensor([ 0., 0., 0.])
>>> out # out was modified by c.zero_()
tensor([ 0., 0., 0.])
>>> out.sum().backward()
>>> a.grad # The result is very, very wrong because `out` changed!
tensor([ 0., 0., 0.])
Support for 0dimensional (scalar) Tensors
Previously, indexing into a Tensor
vector (1dimensional tensor) gave a Python number but indexing into a Variable
vector gave (incosistently!) a vector of size (1,)
! Similar behavior existed with reduction functions, e.g. tensor.sum()
would return a Python number, but variable.sum()
would return a vector of size (1,)
.
Fortunately, this release introduces proper scalar (0dimensional tensor) support in PyTorch! Scalars can be created using the new torch.tensor
function (which will be explained in more detail later; for now just think of it as the PyTorch equivalent of numpy.array
). Now you can do things like:
>>> torch.tensor(3.1416) # create a scalar directly
tensor(3.1416)
>>> torch.tensor(3.1416).size() # scalar is 0dimensional
torch.Size([])
>>> torch.tensor([3]).size() # compare to a vector of size 1
torch.Size([1])
>>>
>>> vector = torch.arange(2, 6) # this is a vector
>>> vector
tensor([ 2., 3., 4., 5.])
>>> vector.size()
torch.Size([4])
>>> vector[3] # indexing into a vector gives a scalar
tensor(5.)
>>> vector[3].item() # .item() gives the value as a Python number
5.0
>>> mysum = torch.tensor([2, 3]).sum()
>>> mysum
tensor(5)
>>> mysum.size()
torch.Size([])
Accumulating losses
Consider the widely used pattern total_loss += loss.data[0]
. Before 0.4.0. loss
was a Variable
wrapping a tensor of size (1,)
, but in 0.4.0 loss
is now a scalar and has 0
dimensions. Indexing into a scalar doesn’t make sense (it gives a warning now, but will be a hard error in 0.5.0). Use loss.item()
to get the Python number from a scalar.
Note that if you don’t convert to a Python number when accumulating losses, you may find increased memory usage in your program. This is because the righthandside of the above expression used to be a Python float, while it is now a zerodim Tensor. The total loss is thus accumulating Tensors and their gradient history, which may keep around large autograd graphs for much longer than necessary.
Deprecation of volatile flag
The volatile
flag is now deprecated and has no effect. Previously, any computation that involves a Variable
with volatile=True
wouldn’t be tracked by autograd
. This has now been replaced by a set of more flexible context managers including torch.no_grad()
, torch.set_grad_enabled(grad_mode)
, and others.
>>> x = torch.zeros(1, requires_grad=True)
>>> with torch.no_grad():
... y = x * 2
>>> y.requires_grad
False
>>>
>>> is_train = False
>>> with torch.set_grad_enabled(is_train):
... y = x * 2
>>> y.requires_grad
False
>>> torch.set_grad_enabled(True) # this can also be used as a function
>>> y = x * 2
>>> y.requires_grad
True
>>> torch.set_grad_enabled(False)
>>> y = x * 2
>>> y.requires_grad
False
dtypes
, devices
and NumPystyle creation functions
In previous versions of PyTorch, we used to specify data type (e.g. float vs double), device type (cpu vs cuda) and layout (dense vs sparse) together as a “tensor type”. For example, torch.cuda.sparse.DoubleTensor
was the Tensor
type respresenting the double
data type, living on CUDA devices, and with COO sparse tensor layout.
In this release, we introduce torch.dtype
, torch.device
and torch.layout
classes to allow better management of these properties via NumPystyle creation functions.
torch.dtype
Below is a complete list of available torch.dtype
s (data types) and their corresponding tensor types.
Data  type torch.dtype 
Tensor types 

32bit floating point  torch.float32 or torch.float 
torch.*.FloatTensor 
64bit floating point  torch.float64 or torch.double 
torch.*.DoubleTensor 
16bit floating point  torch.float16 or torch.half 
torch.*.HalfTensor 
8bit integer (unsigned)  torch.uint8 
torch.*.ByteTensor 
8bit integer (signed)  torch.int8 
torch.*.CharTensor 
16bit integer (signed)  torch.int16 or torch.short 
torch.*.ShortTensor 
32bit integer (signed)  torch.int32 or torch.int 
torch.*.IntTensor 
64bit integer (signed)  torch.int64 or torch.long 
torch.*.LongTensor 
The dtype of a tensor can be access via its dtype
attribute.
torch.device
A torch.device
contains a device type ('cpu'
or 'cuda'
) and optional device ordinal (id) for the device type. It can be initilized with torch.device('{device_type}')
or torch.device('{device_type}:{device_ordinal}')
.
If the device ordinal is not present, this represents the current device for the device type; e.g., torch.device('cuda')
is equivalent to torch.device('cuda:X')
where X
is the result of torch.cuda.current_device()
.
The device of a tensor can be accessed via its device
attribute.
torch.layout
torch.layout
represents the data layout of a Tensor
. Currently torch.strided
(dense tensors, the default) and torch.sparse_coo
(sparse tensors with COO format) are supported.
The layout of a tensor can be access via its layout
attribute.
Creating Tensors
Methods that create a Tensor
now also take in dtype
, device
, layout
, and requires_grad
options to specify the desired attributes on the returned Tensor
. For example,
>>> device = torch.device("cuda:1")
>>> x = torch.randn(3, 3, dtype=torch.float64, device=device)
tensor([[0.6344, 0.8562, 1.2758],
[ 0.8414, 1.7962, 1.0589],
[0.1369, 1.0462, 0.4373]], dtype=torch.float64, device='cuda:1')
>>> x.requires_grad # default is False
False
>>> x = torch.zeros(3, requires_grad=True)
>>> x.requires_grad
True
torch.tensor(data, ...)
torch.tensor
is one of the newly added tensor creation methods. It takes in arraylike data of all kinds and copies the contained values into a new Tensor
. As mentioned earlier, torch.tensor
is the PyTorch equivalent of NumPy’s numpy.array
constructor. Unlike the torch.*Tensor
methods, you can also create zerodimensional Tensor
s (aka scalars) this way (a single python number is treated as a Size in the torch.*Tensor methods
). Moreover, if a dtype
argument isn’t given, it will infer the suitable dtype
given the data. It is the recommended way to create a tensor from existing data like a Python list. For example,
>>> cuda = torch.device("cuda")
>>> torch.tensor([[1], [2], [3]], dtype=torch.half, device=cuda)
tensor([[ 1],
[ 2],
[ 3]], device='cuda:0')
>>> torch.tensor(1) # scalar
tensor(1)
>>> torch.tensor([1, 2.3]).dtype # type inferece
torch.float32
>>> torch.tensor([1, 2]).dtype # type inferece
torch.int64
We’ve also added more tensor creation methods. Some of them have torch.*_like
and/or tensor.new_*
variants.

torch.*_like
takes in an inputTensor
instead of a shape. It returns aTensor
with same attributes as the inputTensor
by default unless otherwise specified:>>> x = torch.randn(3, dtype=torch.float64) >>> torch.zeros_like(x) tensor([ 0., 0., 0.], dtype=torch.float64) >>> torch.zeros_like(x, dtype=torch.int) tensor([ 0, 0, 0], dtype=torch.int32)

tensor.new_*
can also createTensors
with same attributes astensor
, but it always takes in a shape argument:>>> x = torch.randn(3, dtype=torch.float64) >>> x.new_ones(2) tensor([ 1., 1.], dtype=torch.float64) >>> x.new_ones(4, dtype=torch.int) tensor([ 1, 1, 1, 1], dtype=torch.int32)
To specify the desired shape, you can either use a tuple (e.g., torch.zeros((2, 3))
) or variable arguments (e.g., torch.zeros(2, 3)
) in most cases.
Name  Returned Tensor 
torch.*_like variant 
tensor.new_* variant 

torch.empty 
unintialized memory  ✔  ✔ 
torch.zeros 
all zeros  ✔  ✔ 
torch.ones 
all ones  ✔  ✔ 
torch.full 
filled with a given value  ✔  ✔ 
torch.rand 
i.i.d. continuous Uniform[0, 1)  ✔  
torch.randn 
i.i.d. Normal(0, 1) 
✔  
torch.randint 
i.i.d. discrete Uniform in given range  ✔  
torch.randperm 
random permutation of {0, 1, ..., n  1} 

torch.tensor 
copied from existing data (list, NumPy ndarray, etc.)  ✔  
torch.from_numpy * 
from NumPy ndarray (sharing storage without copying) 

torch.arange , torch.range , and torch.linspace 
uniformly spaced values in a given range  
torch.logspace 
logarithmically spaced values in a given range  
torch.eye 
identity matrix 
*: torch.from_numpy
only takes in a NumPy ndarray
as its input argument.
Writing deviceagnostic code
Previous versions of PyTorch made it difficult to write code that was device agnostic (i.e. that could run on both CUDAenabled and CPUonly machines without modification).
PyTorch 0.4.0 makes this easier in two ways:
 The
device
attribute of a Tensor gives the torch.device for all Tensors (get_device
only works for CUDA tensors)  The
to
method ofTensors
andModules
can be used to easily move objects to different devices (instead of having to callcpu()
orcuda()
based on the context)
We recommend the following pattern:
# at beginning of the script
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
...
# then whenever you get a new Tensor or Module
# this won't copy if they are already on the desired device
input = data.to(device)
model = MyModule(...).to(device)
New edgecase constraints on names of submodules, parameters, and buffers in nn.Module
name
that is an empty string or contains "."
is no longer permitted in module.add_module(name, value)
, module.add_parameter(name, value)
or module.add_buffer(name, value)
because such names may cause lost data in the state_dict
. If you are loading a checkpoint for modules containing such names, please update the module definition and patch the state_dict
before loading it.
Code Samples (Putting it all together)
To get a flavor of the overall recommended changes in 0.4.0, let’s look at a quick example for a common code pattern in both 0.3.1 and 0.4.0:
 0.3.1 (old):
model = MyRNN() if use_cuda: model = model.cuda() # train total_loss = 0 for input, target in train_loader: input, target = Variable(input), Variable(target) hidden = Variable(torch.zeros(*h_shape)) # init hidden if use_cuda: input, target, hidden = input.cuda(), target.cuda(), hidden.cuda() ... # get loss and optimize total_loss += loss.data[0] # evaluate for input, target in test_loader: input = Variable(input, volatile=True) if use_cuda: ... ...
 0.4.0 (new):
# torch.device object used throughout this script device = torch.device("cuda" if use_cuda else "cpu") model = MyRNN().to(device) # train total_loss = 0 for input, target in train_loader: input, target = input.to(device), target.to(device) hidden = input.new_zeros(*h_shape) # has the same device & dtype as `input` ... # get loss and optimize total_loss += loss.item() # get Python number from 1element Tensor # evaluate with torch.no_grad(): # operations inside don't track history for input, target in test_loader: ...
Thank you for reading! Please refer to our documentation and release notes for more details.
Happy PyTorching!