"""
Defining a Neural Network in PyTorch
====================================
Deep learning uses artificial neural networks (models), which are
computing systems that are composed of many layers of interconnected
units. By passing data through these interconnected units, a neural
network is able to learn how to approximate the computations required to
transform inputs into outputs. In PyTorch, neural networks can be
constructed using the ``torch.nn`` package.
Introduction
------------
PyTorch provides the elegantly designed modules and classes, including
``torch.nn``, to help you create and train neural networks. An
``nn.Module`` contains layers, and a method ``forward(input)`` that
returns the ``output``.
In this recipe, we will use ``torch.nn`` to define a neural network
intended for the `MNIST
dataset `__.
Setup
-----
Before we begin, we need to install ``torch`` if it isn’t already
available.
::
pip install torch
"""
######################################################################
# Steps
# -----
#
# 1. Import all necessary libraries for loading our data
# 2. Define and initialize the neural network
# 3. Specify how data will pass through your model
# 4. [Optional] Pass data through your model to test
#
# 1. Import necessary libraries for loading our data
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#
# For this recipe, we will use ``torch`` and its subsidiaries ``torch.nn``
# and ``torch.nn.functional``.
#
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
######################################################################
# 2. Define and initialize the neural network
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#
# Our network will recognize images. We will use a process built into
# PyTorch called convolution. Convolution adds each element of an image to
# its local neighbors, weighted by a kernel, or a small matrix, that
# helps us extract certain features (like edge detection, sharpness,
# blurriness, etc.) from the input image.
#
# There are two requirements for defining the ``Net`` class of your model.
# The first is writing an __init__ function that references
# ``nn.Module``. This function is where you define the fully connected
# layers in your neural network.
#
# Using convolution, we will define our model to take 1 input image
# channel, and output match our target of 10 labels representing numbers 0
# through 9. This algorithm is yours to create, we will follow a standard
# MNIST algorithm.
#
class Net(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(Net, self).__init__()
# First 2D convolutional layer, taking in 1 input channel (image),
# outputting 32 convolutional features, with a square kernel size of 3
self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
# Second 2D convolutional layer, taking in the 32 input layers,
# outputting 64 convolutional features, with a square kernel size of 3
self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
# Designed to ensure that adjacent pixels are either all 0s or all active
# with an input probability
self.dropout1 = nn.Dropout2d(0.25)
self.dropout2 = nn.Dropout2d(0.5)
# First fully connected layer
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(9216, 128)
# Second fully connected layer that outputs our 10 labels
self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)
my_nn = Net()
print(my_nn)
######################################################################
# We have finished defining our neural network, now we have to define how
# our data will pass through it.
#
# 3. Specify how data will pass through your model
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#
# When you use PyTorch to build a model, you just have to define the
# ``forward`` function, that will pass the data into the computation graph
# (i.e. our neural network). This will represent our feed-forward
# algorithm.
#
# You can use any of the Tensor operations in the ``forward`` function.
#
class Net(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(Net, self).__init__()
self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(1, 32, 3, 1)
self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 64, 3, 1)
self.dropout1 = nn.Dropout2d(0.25)
self.dropout2 = nn.Dropout2d(0.5)
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(9216, 128)
self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)
# x represents our data
def forward(self, x):
# Pass data through conv1
x = self.conv1(x)
# Use the rectified-linear activation function over x
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.conv2(x)
x = F.relu(x)
# Run max pooling over x
x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
# Pass data through dropout1
x = self.dropout1(x)
# Flatten x with start_dim=1
x = torch.flatten(x, 1)
# Pass data through ``fc1``
x = self.fc1(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.dropout2(x)
x = self.fc2(x)
# Apply softmax to x
output = F.log_softmax(x, dim=1)
return output
######################################################################
# 4. [Optional] Pass data through your model to test
# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
#
# To ensure we receive our desired output, let’s test our model by passing
# some random data through it.
#
# Equates to one random 28x28 image
random_data = torch.rand((1, 1, 28, 28))
my_nn = Net()
result = my_nn(random_data)
print (result)
######################################################################
# Each number in this resulting tensor equates to the prediction of the
# label the random tensor is associated to.
#
# Congratulations! You have successfully defined a neural network in
# PyTorch.
#
# Learn More
# ----------
#
# Take a look at these other recipes to continue your learning:
#
# - `What is a state_dict in PyTorch `__
# - `Saving and loading models for inference in PyTorch `__