# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Neural Tangent Kernels
======================
The neural tangent kernel (NTK) is a kernel that describes
`how a neural network evolves during training `_.
There has been a lot of research around it `in recent years `_.
This tutorial, inspired by the implementation of `NTKs in JAX `_
(see `Fast Finite Width Neural Tangent Kernel `_ for details),
demonstrates how to easily compute this quantity using ``torch.func``,
composable function transforms for PyTorch.
.. note::
This tutorial requires PyTorch 2.0.0 or later.
Setup
-----
First, some setup. Let's define a simple CNN that we wish to compute the NTK of.
"""
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
from torch.func import functional_call, vmap, vjp, jvp, jacrev
device = 'cuda'
class CNN(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(CNN, self).__init__()
self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, 32, (3, 3))
self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(32, 32, (3, 3))
self.conv3 = nn.Conv2d(32, 32, (3, 3))
self.fc = nn.Linear(21632, 10)
def forward(self, x):
x = self.conv1(x)
x = x.relu()
x = self.conv2(x)
x = x.relu()
x = self.conv3(x)
x = x.flatten(1)
x = self.fc(x)
return x
######################################################################
# And let's generate some random data
x_train = torch.randn(20, 3, 32, 32, device=device)
x_test = torch.randn(5, 3, 32, 32, device=device)
######################################################################
# Create a function version of the model
# --------------------------------------
#
# ``torch.func`` transforms operate on functions. In particular, to compute the NTK,
# we will need a function that accepts the parameters of the model and a single
# input (as opposed to a batch of inputs!) and returns a single output.
#
# We'll use ``torch.func.functional_call``, which allows us to call an ``nn.Module``
# using different parameters/buffers, to help accomplish the first step.
#
# Keep in mind that the model was originally written to accept a batch of input
# data points. In our CNN example, there are no inter-batch operations. That
# is, each data point in the batch is independent of other data points. With
# this assumption in mind, we can easily generate a function that evaluates the
# model on a single data point:
net = CNN().to(device)
# Detaching the parameters because we won't be calling Tensor.backward().
params = {k: v.detach() for k, v in net.named_parameters()}
def fnet_single(params, x):
return functional_call(net, params, (x.unsqueeze(0),)).squeeze(0)
######################################################################
# Compute the NTK: method 1 (Jacobian contraction)
# ------------------------------------------------
# We're ready to compute the empirical NTK. The empirical NTK for two data
# points :math:`x_1` and :math:`x_2` is defined as the matrix product between the Jacobian
# of the model evaluated at :math:`x_1` and the Jacobian of the model evaluated at
# :math:`x_2`:
#
# .. math::
#
# J_{net}(x_1) J_{net}^T(x_2)
#
# In the batched case where :math:`x_1` is a batch of data points and :math:`x_2` is a
# batch of data points, then we want the matrix product between the Jacobians
# of all combinations of data points from :math:`x_1` and :math:`x_2`.
#
# The first method consists of doing just that - computing the two Jacobians,
# and contracting them. Here's how to compute the NTK in the batched case:
def empirical_ntk_jacobian_contraction(fnet_single, params, x1, x2):
# Compute J(x1)
jac1 = vmap(jacrev(fnet_single), (None, 0))(params, x1)
jac1 = jac1.values()
jac1 = [j.flatten(2) for j in jac1]
# Compute J(x2)
jac2 = vmap(jacrev(fnet_single), (None, 0))(params, x2)
jac2 = jac2.values()
jac2 = [j.flatten(2) for j in jac2]
# Compute J(x1) @ J(x2).T
result = torch.stack([torch.einsum('Naf,Mbf->NMab', j1, j2) for j1, j2 in zip(jac1, jac2)])
result = result.sum(0)
return result
result = empirical_ntk_jacobian_contraction(fnet_single, params, x_train, x_test)
print(result.shape)
######################################################################
# In some cases, you may only want the diagonal or the trace of this quantity,
# especially if you know beforehand that the network architecture results in an
# NTK where the non-diagonal elements can be approximated by zero. It's easy to
# adjust the above function to do that:
def empirical_ntk_jacobian_contraction(fnet_single, params, x1, x2, compute='full'):
# Compute J(x1)
jac1 = vmap(jacrev(fnet_single), (None, 0))(params, x1)
jac1 = jac1.values()
jac1 = [j.flatten(2) for j in jac1]
# Compute J(x2)
jac2 = vmap(jacrev(fnet_single), (None, 0))(params, x2)
jac2 = jac2.values()
jac2 = [j.flatten(2) for j in jac2]
# Compute J(x1) @ J(x2).T
einsum_expr = None
if compute == 'full':
einsum_expr = 'Naf,Mbf->NMab'
elif compute == 'trace':
einsum_expr = 'Naf,Maf->NM'
elif compute == 'diagonal':
einsum_expr = 'Naf,Maf->NMa'
else:
assert False
result = torch.stack([torch.einsum(einsum_expr, j1, j2) for j1, j2 in zip(jac1, jac2)])
result = result.sum(0)
return result
result = empirical_ntk_jacobian_contraction(fnet_single, params, x_train, x_test, 'trace')
print(result.shape)
######################################################################
# The asymptotic time complexity of this method is :math:`N O [FP]` (time to
# compute the Jacobians) + :math:`N^2 O^2 P` (time to contract the Jacobians),
# where :math:`N` is the batch size of :math:`x_1` and :math:`x_2`, :math:`O`
# is the model's output size, :math:`P` is the total number of parameters, and
# :math:`[FP]` is the cost of a single forward pass through the model. See
# section 3.2 in
# `Fast Finite Width Neural Tangent Kernel `_
# for details.
#
# Compute the NTK: method 2 (NTK-vector products)
# -----------------------------------------------
#
# The next method we will discuss is a way to compute the NTK using NTK-vector
# products.
#
# This method reformulates NTK as a stack of NTK-vector products applied to
# columns of an identity matrix :math:`I_O` of size :math:`O\times O`
# (where :math:`O` is the output size of the model):
#
# .. math::
#
# J_{net}(x_1) J_{net}^T(x_2) = J_{net}(x_1) J_{net}^T(x_2) I_{O} = \left[J_{net}(x_1) \left[J_{net}^T(x_2) e_o\right]\right]_{o=1}^{O},
#
# where :math:`e_o\in \mathbb{R}^O` are column vectors of the identity matrix
# :math:`I_O`.
#
# - Let :math:`\textrm{vjp}_o = J_{net}^T(x_2) e_o`. We can use
# a vector-Jacobian product to compute this.
# - Now, consider :math:`J_{net}(x_1) \textrm{vjp}_o`. This is a
# Jacobian-vector product!
# - Finally, we can run the above computation in parallel over all
# columns :math:`e_o` of :math:`I_O` using ``vmap``.
#
# This suggests that we can use a combination of reverse-mode AD (to compute
# the vector-Jacobian product) and forward-mode AD (to compute the
# Jacobian-vector product) to compute the NTK.
#
# Let's code that up:
def empirical_ntk_ntk_vps(func, params, x1, x2, compute='full'):
def get_ntk(x1, x2):
def func_x1(params):
return func(params, x1)
def func_x2(params):
return func(params, x2)
output, vjp_fn = vjp(func_x1, params)
def get_ntk_slice(vec):
# This computes ``vec @ J(x2).T``
# `vec` is some unit vector (a single slice of the Identity matrix)
vjps = vjp_fn(vec)
# This computes ``J(X1) @ vjps``
_, jvps = jvp(func_x2, (params,), vjps)
return jvps
# Here's our identity matrix
basis = torch.eye(output.numel(), dtype=output.dtype, device=output.device).view(output.numel(), -1)
return vmap(get_ntk_slice)(basis)
# ``get_ntk(x1, x2)`` computes the NTK for a single data point x1, x2
# Since the x1, x2 inputs to ``empirical_ntk_ntk_vps`` are batched,
# we actually wish to compute the NTK between every pair of data points
# between {x1} and {x2}. That's what the ``vmaps`` here do.
result = vmap(vmap(get_ntk, (None, 0)), (0, None))(x1, x2)
if compute == 'full':
return result
if compute == 'trace':
return torch.einsum('NMKK->NM', result)
if compute == 'diagonal':
return torch.einsum('NMKK->NMK', result)
result_from_jacobian_contraction = empirical_ntk_jacobian_contraction(fnet_single, params, x_test, x_train)
result_from_ntk_vps = empirical_ntk_ntk_vps(fnet_single, params, x_test, x_train)
assert torch.allclose(result_from_jacobian_contraction, result_from_ntk_vps, atol=1e-5)
######################################################################
# Our code for ``empirical_ntk_ntk_vps`` looks like a direct translation from
# the math above! This showcases the power of function transforms: good luck
# trying to write an efficient version of the above by only using
# ``torch.autograd.grad``.
#
# The asymptotic time complexity of this method is :math:`N^2 O [FP]`, where
# :math:`N` is the batch size of :math:`x_1` and :math:`x_2`, :math:`O` is the
# model's output size, and :math:`[FP]` is the cost of a single forward pass
# through the model. Hence this method performs more forward passes through the
# network than method 1, Jacobian contraction (:math:`N^2 O` instead of
# :math:`N O`), but avoids the contraction cost altogether (no :math:`N^2 O^2 P`
# term, where :math:`P` is the total number of model's parameters). Therefore,
# this method is preferable when :math:`O P` is large relative to :math:`[FP]`,
# such as fully-connected (not convolutional) models with many outputs :math:`O`.
# Memory-wise, both methods should be comparable. See section 3.3 in
# `Fast Finite Width Neural Tangent Kernel `_
# for details.