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Replay Buffers

Replay buffers are a central part of off-policy RL algorithms. TorchRL provides an efficient implementation of a few, widely used replay buffers:

ReplayBuffer(*[, storage, sampler, writer, ...])

A generic, composable replay buffer class.

PrioritizedReplayBuffer(*, alpha, beta[, ...])

Prioritized replay buffer.

TensorDictReplayBuffer(*[, priority_key])

TensorDict-specific wrapper around the ReplayBuffer class.

TensorDictPrioritizedReplayBuffer(*, alpha, beta)

TensorDict-specific wrapper around the PrioritizedReplayBuffer class.

Composable Replay Buffers

We also give users the ability to compose a replay buffer. We provide a wide panel of solutions for replay buffer usage, including support for almost any data type; storage in memory, on device or on physical memory; several sampling strategies; usage of transforms etc.

Supported data types and choosing a storage

In theory, replay buffers support any data type but we can’t guarantee that each component will support any data type. The most crude replay buffer implementation is made of a ReplayBuffer base with a ListStorage storage. This is very inefficient but it will allow you to store complex data structures with non-tensor data. Storages in contiguous memory include TensorStorage, LazyTensorStorage and LazyMemmapStorage. These classes support TensorDict data as first-class citizens, but also any PyTree data structure (eg, tuples, lists, dictionaries and nested versions of these). The TensorStorage storage requires you to provide the storage at construction time, whereas TensorStorage (RAM, CUDA) and LazyMemmapStorage (physical memory) will preallocate the storage for you after they’ve been extended the first time.

Here are a few examples, starting with the generic ListStorage:

>>> from import ReplayBuffer, ListStorage
>>> rb = ReplayBuffer(storage=ListStorage(10))
>>> rb.add("a string!") # first element will be a string
>>> rb.extend([30, None])  # element [1] is an int, [2] is None

Using a TensorStorage we tell our RB that we want the storage to be contiguous, which is by far more efficient but also more restrictive:

>>> import torch
>>> from import ReplayBuffer, TensorStorage
>>> container = torch.empty(10, 3, 64, 64, dtype=torch.unit8)
>>> rb = ReplayBuffer(storage=TensorStorage(container))
>>> img = torch.randint(255, (3, 64, 64), dtype=torch.uint8)
>>> rb.add(img)

Next we can avoid creating the container and ask the storage to do it automatically. This is very useful when using PyTrees and tensordicts! For PyTrees as other data structures, add() considers the sampled passed to it as a single instance of the type. extend() on the other hand will consider that the data is an iterable. For tensors, tensordicts and lists (see below), the iterable is looked for at the root level. For PyTrees, we assume that the leading dimension of all the leaves (tensors) in the tree match. If they don’t, extend will throw an exception.

>>> import torch
>>> from tensordict import TensorDict
>>> from import ReplayBuffer, LazyMemmapStorage
>>> rb_td = ReplayBuffer(storage=LazyMemmapStorage(10), batch_size=1)  # max 10 elements stored
>>> rb_td.add(TensorDict({"img": torch.randint(255, (3, 64, 64), dtype=torch.unit8),
...     "labels": torch.randint(100, ())}, batch_size=[]))
>>> rb_pytree = ReplayBuffer(storage=LazyMemmapStorage(10))  # max 10 elements stored
>>> # extend with a PyTree where all tensors have the same leading dim (3)
>>> rb_pytree.extend({"a": {"b": torch.randn(3), "c": [torch.zeros(3, 2), (torch.ones(3, 10),)]}})
>>> assert len(rb_pytree) == 3  # the replay buffer has 3 elements!


extend() can have an ambiguous signature when dealing with lists of values, which should be interpreted either as PyTree (in which case all elements in the list will be put in a slice in the stored PyTree in the storage) or a list of values to add one at a time. To solve this, TorchRL makes the clear-cut distinction between list and tuple: a tuple will be viewed as a PyTree, a list (at the root level) will be interpreted as a stack of values to add one at a time to the buffer.

Sampling and indexing

Replay buffers can be indexed and sampled. Indexing and sampling collect data at given indices in the storage and then process them through a series of transforms and collate_fn that can be passed to the __init__ function of the replay buffer. collate_fn comes with default values that should match user expectations in the majority of cases, such that you should not have to worry about it most of the time. Transforms are usually instances of Transform even though regular functions will work too (in the latter case, the inv() method will obviously be ignored, whereas in the first case it can be used to preprocess the data before it is passed to the buffer). Finally, sampling can be achieved using multithreading by passing the number of threads to the constructor through the prefetch keyword argument. We advise users to benchmark this technique in real life settings before adopting it, as there is no guarantee that it will lead to a faster throughput in practice depending on the machine and setting where it is used.

When sampling, the batch_size can be either passed during construction (e.g., if it’s constant throughout training) or to the sample() method.

To further refine the sampling strategy, we advise you to look into our samplers!

Here are a couple of examples of how to get data out of a replay buffer:

>>> first_elt = rb_td[0]
>>> storage = rb_td[:] # returns all valid elements from the buffer
>>> sample = rb_td.sample(128)
>>> for data in rb_td:  # iterate over the buffer using the sampler -- batch-size was set in the constructor to 1
...     print(data)

using the following components:


A generic sampler base class for composable Replay Buffers.

PrioritizedSampler(max_capacity, alpha, beta)

Prioritized sampler for replay buffer.

PrioritizedSliceSampler(max_capacity, alpha, ...)

Samples slices of data along the first dimension, given start and stop signals, using prioritized sampling.


A uniformly random sampler for composable replay buffers.

SamplerWithoutReplacement([drop_last, shuffle])

A data-consuming sampler that ensures that the same sample is not present in consecutive batches.

SliceSampler(*[, num_slices, slice_len, ...])

Samples slices of data along the first dimension, given start and stop signals.

SliceSamplerWithoutReplacement(*[, ...])

Samples slices of data along the first dimension, given start and stop signals, without replacement.


A Storage is the container of a replay buffer.


A storage stored in a list.

LazyTensorStorage(max_size, *[, device, ndim])

A pre-allocated tensor storage for tensors and tensordicts.

LazyMemmapStorage(max_size, *[, ...])

A memory-mapped storage for tensors and tensordicts.

TensorStorage(storage[, max_size, device, ndim])

A storage for tensors and tensordicts.


A ReplayBuffer base Writer class.


A blocking writer for immutable datasets.


A RoundRobin Writer class for composable replay buffers.


A RoundRobin Writer class for composable, tensordict-based replay buffers.

TensorDictMaxValueWriter([rank_key, reduction])

A Writer class for composable replay buffers that keeps the top elements based on some ranking key.

Storage choice is very influential on replay buffer sampling latency, especially in distributed reinforcement learning settings with larger data volumes. LazyMemmapStorage is highly advised in distributed settings with shared storage due to the lower serialisation cost of MemoryMappedTensors as well as the ability to specify file storage locations for improved node failure recovery. The following mean sampling latency improvements over using ListStorage were found from rough benchmarking in

Storage Type

Speed up







Sharing replay buffers across processes

Replay buffers can be shared between processes as long as their components are sharable. This feature allows for multiple processes to collect data and populate a shared replay buffer collaboratively, rather than centralizing the data on the main process which can incur some data transmission overhead.

Sharable storages include LazyMemmapStorage or any subclass of TensorStorage as long as they are instantiated and their content is stored as memory-mapped tensors. Stateful writers such as TensorDictRoundRobinWriter are currently not sharable, and the same goes for stateful samplers such as PrioritizedSampler.

A shared replay buffer can be read and extended on any process that has access to it, as the following example shows:

>>> from import TensorDictReplayBuffer, LazyMemmapStorage
>>> import torch
>>> from torch import multiprocessing as mp
>>> from tensordict import TensorDict
>>> def worker(rb):
...     # Updates the replay buffer with new data
...     td = TensorDict({"a": torch.ones(10)}, [10])
...     rb.extend(td)
>>> if __name__ == "__main__":
...     rb = TensorDictReplayBuffer(storage=LazyMemmapStorage(21))
...     td = TensorDict({"a": torch.zeros(10)}, [10])
...     rb.extend(td)
...     proc = mp.Process(target=worker, args=(rb,))
...     proc.start()
...     proc.join()
...     # the replay buffer now has a length of 20, since the worker updated it
...     assert len(rb) == 20
...     assert (rb["_data", "a"][:10] == 0).all()  # data from main process
...     assert (rb["_data", "a"][10:20] == 1).all()  # data from remote process

Storing trajectories

It is not too difficult to store trajectories in the replay buffer. One element to pay attention to is that the size of the replay buffer is by default the size of the leading dimension of the storage: in other words, creating a replay buffer with a storage of size 1M when storing multidimensional data does not mean storing 1M frames but 1M trajectories. However, if trajectories (or episodes/rollouts) are flattened before being stored, the capacity will still be 1M steps.

There is a way to circumvent this by telling the storage how many dimensions it should take into account when saving data. This can be done through the ndim keyword argument which is accepted by all contiguous storages such as TensorStorage and the likes. When a multidimensional storage is passed to a buffer, the buffer will automatically consider the last dimension as the “time” dimension, as it is conventional in TorchRL. This can be overridden through the dim_extend keyword argument in ReplayBuffer. This is the recommended way to save trajectories that are obtained through ParallelEnv or its serial counterpart, as we will see below.

When sampling trajectories, it may be desirable to sample sub-trajectories to diversify learning or make the sampling more efficient. TorchRL offers two distinctive ways of accomplishing this:

  • The SliceSampler allows to sample a given number of slices of trajectories stored one after another along the leading dimension of the TensorStorage. This is the recommended way of sampling sub-trajectories in TorchRL __especially__ when using offline datasets (which are stored using that convention). This strategy requires to flatten the trajectories before extending the replay buffer and reshaping them after sampling. The SliceSampler class docstrings gives extensive details about this storage and sampling strategy. Note that SliceSampler is compatible with multidimensional storages. The following examples show how to use this feature with and without flattening of the tensordict. In the first scenario, we are collecting data from a single environment. In that case, we are happy with a storage that concatenates the data coming in along the first dimension, since there will be no interruption introduced by the collection schedule:

    >>> from torchrl.envs import TransformedEnv, StepCounter, GymEnv
    >>> from torchrl.collectors import SyncDataCollector, RandomPolicy
    >>> from import ReplayBuffer, LazyTensorStorage, SliceSampler
    >>> env = TransformedEnv(GymEnv("CartPole-v1"), StepCounter())
    >>> collector = SyncDataCollector(env,
    ...     RandomPolicy(env.action_spec),
    ...     frames_per_batch=10, total_frames=-1)
    >>> rb = ReplayBuffer(
    ...     storage=LazyTensorStorage(100),
    ...     sampler=SliceSampler(num_slices=8, traj_key=("collector", "traj_ids"),
    ...         truncated_key=None, strict_length=False),
    ...     batch_size=64)
    >>> for i, data in enumerate(collector):
    ...     rb.extend(data)
    ...     if i == 10:
    ...         break
    >>> assert len(rb) == 100, len(rb)
    >>> print(rb[:]["next", "step_count"])

    If there are more than one environment run in a batch, we could still store the data in the same buffer as before by calling data.reshape(-1) which will flatten the [B, T] size into [B * T] but that means that the trajectories of, say, the first environment of the batch will be interleaved by trajectories of the other environments, a scenario that SliceSampler cannot handle. To solve this, we suggest to use the ndim argument in the storage constructor:

    >>> env = TransformedEnv(SerialEnv(2,
    ...     lambda: GymEnv("CartPole-v1")), StepCounter())
    >>> collector = SyncDataCollector(env,
    ...     RandomPolicy(env.action_spec),
    ...     frames_per_batch=1, total_frames=-1)
    >>> rb = ReplayBuffer(
    ...     storage=LazyTensorStorage(100, ndim=2),
    ...     sampler=SliceSampler(num_slices=8, traj_key=("collector", "traj_ids"),
    ...         truncated_key=None, strict_length=False),
    ...     batch_size=64)
    >>> for i, data in enumerate(collector):
    ...     rb.extend(data)
    ...     if i == 100:
    ...         break
    >>> assert len(rb) == 100, len(rb)
    >>> print(rb[:]["next", "step_count"].squeeze())
    tensor([[ 6,  5],
            [ 2,  2],
            [ 3,  3],
            [ 4,  4],
            [ 5,  5],
            [ 6,  6],
            [ 7,  7],
            [ 8,  8],
            [ 9,  9],
            [10, 10],
            [11, 11],
            [12, 12],
            [13, 13],
            [14, 14],
            [15, 15],
            [16, 16],
            [17, 17],
            [18,  1],
            [19,  2],
  • Trajectories can also be stored independently, with the each element of the leading dimension pointing to a different trajectory. This requires for the trajectories to have a congruent shape (or to be padded). We provide a custom Transform class named RandomCropTensorDict that allows to sample sub-trajectories in the buffer. Note that, unlike the SliceSampler-based strategy, here having an "episode" or "done" key pointing at the start and stop signals isn’t required. Here is an example of how this class can be used:

Checkpointing Replay Buffers

Each component of the replay buffer can potentially be stateful and, as such, require a dedicated way of being serialized. Our replay buffer enjoys two separate APIs for saving their state on disk: dumps() and loads() will save the data of each component except transforms (storage, writer, sampler) using memory-mapped tensors and json files for the metadata. This will work across all classes except ListStorage, which content cannot be anticipated (and as such does not comply with memory-mapped data structures such as those that can be found in the tensordict library). This API guarantees that a buffer that is saved and then loaded back will be in the exact same state, whether we look at the status of its sampler (eg, priority trees) its writer (eg, max writer heaps) or its storage. Under the hood, dumps() will just call the public dumps method in a specific folder for each of its components (except transforms which we don’t assume to be serializable using memory-mapped tensors in general).

Whenever saving data using dumps() is not possible, an alternative way is to use state_dict(), which returns a data structure that can be saved using and loaded using torch.load() before calling load_state_dict(). The drawback of this method is that it will struggle to save big data structures, which is a common setting when using replay buffers.

TorchRL Episode Data Format (TED)

In TorchRL, sequential data is consistently presented in a specific format, known as the TorchRL Episode Data Format (TED). This format is crucial for the seamless integration and functioning of various components within TorchRL.

Some components, such as replay buffers, are somewhat indifferent to the data format. However, others, particularly environments, heavily depend on it for smooth operation.

Therefore, it’s essential to understand the TED, its purpose, and how to interact with it. This guide will provide a clear explanation of the TED, why it’s used, and how to effectively work with it.

The Rationale Behind TED

Formatting sequential data can be a complex task, especially in the realm of Reinforcement Learning (RL). As practitioners, we often encounter situations where data is delivered at the reset time (though not always), and sometimes data is provided or discarded at the final step of the trajectory.

This variability means that we can observe data of different lengths in a dataset, and it’s not always immediately clear how to match each time step across the various elements of this dataset. Consider the following ambiguous dataset structure:

>>> observation.shape
[200, 3]
>>> action.shape
[199, 4]
>>> info.shape
[200, 3]

At first glance, it seems that the info and observation were delivered together (one of each at reset + one of each at each step call), as suggested by the action having one less element. However, if info has one less element, we must assume that it was either omitted at reset time or not delivered or recorded for the last step of the trajectory. Without proper documentation of the data structure, it’s impossible to determine which info corresponds to which time step.

Complicating matters further, some datasets provide inconsistent data formats, where observations or infos are missing at the start or end of the rollout, and this behavior is often not documented. The primary aim of TED is to eliminate these ambiguities by providing a clear and consistent data representation.

The structure of TED

TED is built upon the canonical definition of a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in RL contexts. At each step, an observation conditions an action that results in (1) a new observation, (2) an indicator of task completion (terminated, truncated, done), and (3) a reward signal.

Some elements may be missing (for example, the reward is optional in imitation learning contexts), or additional information may be passed through a state or info container. In some cases, additional information is required to get the observation during a call to step (for instance, in stateless environment simulators). Furthermore, in certain scenarios, an “action” (or any other data) cannot be represented as a single tensor and needs to be organized differently. For example, in Multi-Agent RL settings, actions, observations, rewards, and completion signals may be composite.

TED accommodates all these scenarios with a single, uniform, and unambiguous format. We distinguish what happens at time step t and t+1 by setting a limit at the time the action is executed. In other words, everything that was present before env.step was called belongs to t, and everything that comes after belongs to t+1.

The general rule is that everything that belongs to time step t is stored at the root of the tensordict, while everything that belongs to t+1 is stored in the "next" entry of the tensordict. Here’s an example:

>>> data = env.reset()
>>> data = policy(data)
>>> print(env.step(data))
        action: Tensor(...),  # The action taken at time t
        done: Tensor(...),  # The done state when the action was taken (at reset)
        next: TensorDict(  # all of this content comes from the call to `step`
                done: Tensor(...),  # The done state after the action has been taken
                observation: Tensor(...),  # The observation resulting from the action
                reward: Tensor(...),  # The reward resulting from the action
                terminated: Tensor(...),  # The terminated state after the action has been taken
                truncated: Tensor(...),  # The truncated state after the action has been taken
        observation: Tensor(...),  # the observation at reset
        terminated: Tensor(...),  # the terminated at reset
        truncated: Tensor(...),  # the truncated at reset

During a rollout (either using EnvBase or SyncDataCollector), the content of the "next" tensordict is brought to the root through the step_mdp() function when the agent resets its step count: t <- t+1. You can read more about the environment API here.

In most cases, there is no True-valued "done" state at the root since any done state will trigger a (partial) reset which will turn the "done" to False. However, this is only true as long as resets are automatically performed. In some cases, partial resets will not trigger a reset, so we retain these data, which should have a considerably lower memory footprint than observations, for instance.

This format eliminates any ambiguity regarding the matching of an observation with its action, info, or done state.

Dimensionality of the Tensordict

During a rollout, all collected tensordicts will be stacked along a new dimension positioned at the end. Both collectors and environments will label this dimension with the "time" name. Here’s an example:

>>> rollout = env.rollout(10, policy)
>>> assert rollout.shape[-1] == 10
>>> assert rollout.names[-1] == "time"

This ensures that the time dimension is clearly marked and easily identifiable in the data structure.

Special cases and footnotes

Multi-Agent data presentation

The multi-agent data formatting documentation can be accessed in the MARL environment API section.

Memory-based policies (RNNs and Transformers)

In the examples provided above, only env.step(data) generates data that needs to be read in the next step. However, in some cases, the policy also outputs information that will be required in the next step. This is typically the case for RNN-based policies, which output an action as well as a recurrent state that needs to be used in the next step. To accommodate this, we recommend users to adjust their RNN policy to write this data under the "next" entry of the tensordict. This ensures that this content will be brought to the root in the next step. More information can be found in GRUModule and LSTMModule.


Collectors allow users to skip steps when reading the data, accumulating reward for the upcoming n steps. This technique is popular in DQN-like algorithms like Rainbow. The MultiStep class performs this data transformation on batches coming out of collectors. In these cases, a check like the following will fail since the next observation is shifted by n steps:

>>> assert (data[..., 1:]["observation"] == data[..., :-1]["next", "observation"]).all()

What about memory requirements?

Implemented naively, this data format consumes approximately twice the memory that a flat representation would. In some memory-intensive settings (for example, in the AtariDQNExperienceReplay dataset), we store only the T+1 observation on disk and perform the formatting online at get time. In other cases, we assume that the 2x memory cost is a small price to pay for a clearer representation. However, generalizing the lazy representation for offline datasets would certainly be a beneficial feature to have, and we welcome contributions in this direction!


TorchRL provides wrappers around offline RL datasets. These data are presented as ReplayBuffer instances, which means that they can be customized at will with transforms, samplers and storages. For instance, entries can be filtered in or out of a dataset with SelectTransform or ExcludeTransform.

By default, datasets are stored as memory mapped tensors, allowing them to be promptly sampled with virtually no memory footprint.

Here’s an example:


Installing dependencies is the responsibility of the user. For D4RL, a clone of the repository is needed as the latest wheels are not published on PyPI. For OpenML, scikit-learn and pandas are required.

Transforming datasets

In many instances, the raw data isn’t going to be used as-is. The natural solution could be to pass a Transform instance to the dataset constructor and modify the sample on-the-fly. This will work but it will incur an extra runtime for the transform. If the transformations can be (at least a part) pre-applied to the dataset, a conisderable disk space and some incurred overhead at sampling time can be saved. To do this, the preprocess() can be used. This method will run a per-sample preprocessing pipeline on each element of the dataset, and replace the existing dataset by its transformed version.

Once transformed, re-creating the same dataset will produce another object with the same transformed storage (unless download="force" is being used):

>>> dataset = RobosetExperienceReplay(
...     "FK1-v4(expert)/FK1_MicroOpenRandom_v2d-v4", batch_size=32, download="force"
... )
>>> def func(data):
...     return data.set("obs_norm", data.get("observation").norm(dim=-1))
>>> dataset.preprocess(
...     func,
...     num_workers=max(1, os.cpu_count() - 2),
...     num_chunks=1000,
...     mp_start_method="fork",
... )
>>> sample = dataset.sample()
>>> assert "obs_norm" in sample.keys()
>>> # re-recreating the dataset gives us the transformed version back.
>>> dataset = RobosetExperienceReplay(
...     "FK1-v4(expert)/FK1_MicroOpenRandom_v2d-v4", batch_size=32
... )
>>> sample = dataset.sample()
>>> assert "obs_norm" in sample.keys()

BaseDatasetExperienceReplay(*[, priority_key])

Parent class for offline datasets.

AtariDQNExperienceReplay(dataset_id[, ...])

Atari DQN Experience replay class.

D4RLExperienceReplay(dataset_id, batch_size)

An Experience replay class for D4RL.

GenDGRLExperienceReplay(dataset_id[, ...])

Gen-DGRL Experience Replay dataset.

MinariExperienceReplay(dataset_id, batch_size, *)

Minari Experience replay dataset.

OpenMLExperienceReplay(name, batch_size[, ...])

An experience replay for OpenML data.

OpenXExperienceReplay(dataset_id[, ...])

Open X-Embodiment datasets experience replay.

RobosetExperienceReplay(dataset_id, ...[, ...])

Roboset experience replay dataset.

VD4RLExperienceReplay(dataset_id, batch_size, *)

V-D4RL experience replay dataset.

Composing datasets

In offline RL, it is customary to work with more than one dataset at the same time. Moreover, TorchRL usually has a fine-grained dataset nomenclature, where each task is represented separately when other libraries will represent these datasets in a more compact way. To allow users to compose multiple datasets together, we propose a ReplayBufferEnsemble primitive that allows users to sample from multiple datasets at once.

If the individual dataset formats differ, Transform instances can be used. In the following example, we create two dummy datasets with semantically identical entries that differ in names (("some", "key") and "another_key") and show how they can be renamed to have a matching name. We also resize images such that they can be stacked together during sampling.

>>> from torchrl.envs import Comopse, ToTensorImage, Resize, RenameTransform
>>> from import TensorDictReplayBuffer, ReplayBufferEnsemble, LazyMemmapStorage
>>> from tensordict import TensorDict
>>> import torch
>>> rb0 = TensorDictReplayBuffer(
...     storage=LazyMemmapStorage(10),
...     transform=Compose(
...         ToTensorImage(in_keys=["pixels", ("next", "pixels")]),
...         Resize(32, in_keys=["pixels", ("next", "pixels")]),
...         RenameTransform([("some", "key")], ["renamed"]),
...     ),
... )
>>> rb1 = TensorDictReplayBuffer(
...     storage=LazyMemmapStorage(10),
...     transform=Compose(
...         ToTensorImage(in_keys=["pixels", ("next", "pixels")]),
...         Resize(32, in_keys=["pixels", ("next", "pixels")]),
...         RenameTransform(["another_key"], ["renamed"]),
...     ),
... )
>>> rb = ReplayBufferEnsemble(
...     rb0,
...     rb1,
...     p=[0.5, 0.5],
...     transform=Resize(33, in_keys=["pixels"], out_keys=["pixels33"]),
... )
>>> data0 = TensorDict(
...     {
...         "pixels": torch.randint(255, (10, 244, 244, 3)),
...         ("next", "pixels"): torch.randint(255, (10, 244, 244, 3)),
...         ("some", "key"): torch.randn(10),
...     },
...     batch_size=[10],
... )
>>> data1 = TensorDict(
...     {
...         "pixels": torch.randint(255, (10, 64, 64, 3)),
...         ("next", "pixels"): torch.randint(255, (10, 64, 64, 3)),
...         "another_key": torch.randn(10),
...     },
...     batch_size=[10],
... )
>>> rb[0].extend(data0)
>>> rb[1].extend(data1)
>>> for _ in range(2):
...     sample = rb.sample(10)
...     assert sample["next", "pixels"].shape == torch.Size([2, 5, 3, 32, 32])
...     assert sample["pixels"].shape == torch.Size([2, 5, 3, 32, 32])
...     assert sample["pixels33"].shape == torch.Size([2, 5, 3, 33, 33])
...     assert sample["renamed"].shape == torch.Size([2, 5])

ReplayBufferEnsemble(*rbs[, storages, ...])

An ensemble of replay buffers.

SamplerEnsemble(*samplers[, p, ...])

An ensemble of samplers.

StorageEnsemble(*storages[, transforms])

An ensemble of storages.


An ensemble of writers.


The TensorSpec parent class and subclasses define the basic properties of observations and actions in TorchRL, such as shape, device, dtype and domain. It is important that your environment specs match the input and output that it sends and receives, as ParallelEnv will create buffers from these specs to communicate with the spawn processes. Check the torchrl.envs.utils.check_env_specs method for a sanity check.

TensorSpec(shape, space[, device, dtype, domain])

Parent class of the tensor meta-data containers for observation, actions and rewards.

BinaryDiscreteTensorSpec(n[, shape, device, ...])

A binary discrete tensor spec.

BoundedTensorSpec([low, high, shape, ...])

A bounded continuous tensor spec.

CompositeSpec(*args, **kwargs)

A composition of TensorSpecs.

DiscreteTensorSpec(n[, shape, device, ...])

A discrete tensor spec.

MultiDiscreteTensorSpec(nvec[, shape, ...])

A concatenation of discrete tensor spec.

MultiOneHotDiscreteTensorSpec(nvec[, shape, ...])

A concatenation of one-hot discrete tensor spec.

OneHotDiscreteTensorSpec(n[, shape, device, ...])

A unidimensional, one-hot discrete tensor spec.

UnboundedContinuousTensorSpec([shape, ...])

An unbounded continuous tensor spec.

UnboundedDiscreteTensorSpec([shape, device, ...])

An unbounded discrete tensor spec.

LazyStackedTensorSpec(*specs, dim)

A lazy representation of a stack of tensor specs.

LazyStackedCompositeSpec(*specs, dim)

A lazy representation of a stack of composite specs.

Reinforcement Learning From Human Feedback (RLHF)

Data is of utmost importance in Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF). Given that these techniques are commonly employed in the realm of language, which is scarcely addressed in other subdomains of RL within the library, we offer specific utilities to facilitate interaction with external libraries like datasets. These utilities consist of tools for tokenizing data, formatting it in a manner suitable for TorchRL modules, and optimizing storage for efficient sampling.

PairwiseDataset(chosen_data, rejected_data, ...)

PromptData(input_ids, attention_mask, ...[, ...])

PromptTensorDictTokenizer(tokenizer, max_length)

Tokenization recipe for prompt datasets.

RewardData(input_ids, attention_mask[, ...])

RolloutFromModel(model, ref_model, reward_model)

A class for performing rollouts with causal language models.

TensorDictTokenizer(tokenizer, max_length[, ...])

Factory for a process function that applies a tokenizer over a text example.

TokenizedDatasetLoader(split, max_length, ...)

Loads a tokenizes dataset, and caches a memory-mapped copy of it.


Iterates indefinitely over an iterator.

get_dataloader(batch_size, block_size, ...)

Creates a dataset and returns a dataloader from it.


MultiStep(gamma, n_steps)

Multistep reward transform.

consolidate_spec(spec[, ...])

Given a TensorSpec, removes exclusive keys by adding 0 shaped specs.

check_no_exclusive_keys(spec[, recurse])

Given a TensorSpec, returns true if there are no exclusive keys.


Returns true if a spec contains lazy stacked specs.

MultiStepTransform(n_steps, gamma, *[, ...])

A MultiStep transformation for ReplayBuffers.


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