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Rendezvous

In the context of torchelastic we use the term “rendezvous” to refer to a particular functionality that combines a distributed synchronization primitive with peer discovery.

It is used by torchelastic to gather participants of a training job (i.e. workers) such that they all agree on the same list of participants and everyone’s roles, as well as make a consistent collective decision on when training can begin/resume.

Torchelastic Rendezvous provides the following critical functionalities:

Barrier

Workers performing rendezvous will all block until the rendezvous is considered complete - this happens when at least min total number of workers have joined the rendezvous barrier (for the same job). This also implies the barrier is not necessarily of fixed size.

There’s an additional small waiting time after reaching min number of workers - this is used to ensure the rendezvous is not completed “too quickly” (which could potentially exclude additional workers attempting to join at approximately the same time).

If max number of workers is gathered at the barrier, the rendezvous is completed immediately.

There’s also an overall timeout which causes the rendezvous to fail if min number of workers is never reached – this is meant to be a simple fail-safe to help release partially allocated job resources, in case there’s a problem with the resource manger, and is meant to be interpreted as non-retryable.

Exclusivity

A simple distributed barrier would not be sufficient, as we also need to ensure that only one group of workers exists at any given time (for a given job). In other words, new workers (i.e. joining late) should not be able to form a parallel independent group of workers for the same job.

Torchelastic rendezvous ensures that if a group of workers has already completed a rendezvous (and hence might already be training), then additional “late” workers attempting to rendezvous will only announce themselves as waiting, and will have to wait until the (previously completed) existing rendezvous is destroyed first.

Consistency

When a rendezvous is completed, all its members will agree on the job membership and everyone’s role in it. This role is represented using an integer, called rank, that is between between 0 and world size.

Note that ranks are not stable, in the sense that the same worker process can be assigned a different rank in the next (re-)rendezvous.

Fault-tolerance

Torchelastic rendezvous is designed to tolerate worker failures during the rendezvous process. Should a process crash (or lose network connectivity, etc), between joining the rendezvous and it being completed, then a re-rendezvous with remaining healthy workers will happen automatically.

A worker can also fail after it has completed (or has been observered by other workers to have completed) the rendezvous - this scenario will be handled by the torchelastic train_loop instead (where it will also trigger a re-rendezvous).

Shared key-value store

When the rendezvous is completed, a shared key-value store is created and returned. This store implements a torch.distributed.Store API (see distributed communication docs).

This store is only shared by the members of the completed rendezvous. It is intended to be used by torchelastic to exchange information necessary to initialize job control and data-planes.

Waiting workers and rendezvous closing

Torchelastic rendezvous handler object provides additional functionalities, which are technically not part of the rendezvous process: * Querying how many workers arrived late at the barrier, who can participate in next rendezvous. * Setting the rendezvous closed to signal all workers not to participate in next rendezvous.

Interface:

Torchelastic rendezvous has the following interface: WARNING: torchelastic is currently considered experimental, so the APIs may change!

class RendezvousHandler(abc.ABC):
    @abc.abstractmethod
    def next_rendezvous(self) -> Tuple["torch.distributed.Store", int, int]:
        pass

    @abc.abstractmethod
    def is_closed(self) -> bool:
        pass

    @abc.abstractmethod
    def set_closed(self):
        pass

    @abc.abstractmethod
    def num_nodes_waiting(self) -> int:
        pass

class RendezvousClosedException(Exception):
    pass

class RendezvousTimeoutException(Exception):
    pass

class RendezvousNonRetryableError(Exception):
    pass

The next_rendezvous is the main entry-point into the rendezvous barrier. It blocks until the rendezvous is complete (and the current process is included in the formed worker group), or a timeout occurs, or rendezvous was marked closed.

Retuned value is a triplet (store, rank, world_size). If a timeout occurs, RendezvousTimeoutException is raised. If the rendezvous for current job is closed, RendezvousClosedException is raised.

is_closed checks whether rendezvous for current job has been closed, which means all future attempts to re-rendezvous (within same job) will fail.

set_closed is used to mark the rendezvous (for current job) as closed.

Note that is_closed/set_closed have semantics of eventual propagation, and should not be used for synchronization. The intention here is that if at least one worker decides the job is finished, it will close the rendezvous, and other workers will “soon” observe this and stop training/rendezvous-ing as well.

num_nodes_waiting returns number of workers who arrived late at the rendezvous barrier, hence weren’t included in the current worker group. Torchelastic train_loop will periodically check num_nodes_waiting, and may decide to pause training in order to re-rendezvous and include these additional workers.

NOTE: Torchelastic users normally do not need to implement their own RendezvousHandler. An implementation based on etcd is already provided, and is recommended for most users, provided they can deploy it in their environment.

Etcd Rendezvous

The etcd_rendezvous implementation in torchelastic uses etcd as the backend store. You can see the full implementation in etcd_rendezvous.py. Below is a state diagram of how it works, etcd rendezvous state diagram

Torchelastic uses a URL to configure the type of rendezvous to use and to pass implementation specific configurations to the rendezvous module. The basic etcd rendezvous configuration URL looks like the following

etcd://<etcd_address>:<port>/<job_id>?min_workers=<min_workers>&max_workers=<max_workers>

-- example --

etcd://localhost:2379/1234?min_workers=1&max_workers=3

The URL above is passed to the constructor of the Coordinator and it is interpreted as the following:

  1. Use the rendezvous handler that is registered with the etcd scheme
  2. The etcd endpoint to use is localhost:2379
  3. job_id == 1234 is used as the prefix in etcd (this allows one to share a common etcd server for multiple jobs so long as the job_ids are guaranteed to be unique). Note that the job id can be any string (e.g. does not need to be a number) as long as it is unique.
  4. min_workers=1 and max_workers=3 specifies a range for membership size - torchelastic starts running the job as long as the cluster size is greater than or equal to min_workers and admits up to max_workers into the cluster.

Below are a full list of the parameters that can be passed to etcd rendezvous

Parameter Description
min_workers minimum number of workers for the rendezvous to be valid
max_workers maximum number of workers to admit
timeout total timeout within which next_rendezvous is expected to succeed (default 600s)
last_call_timeout additional wait amount (“last call”) after min number of workers has been reached (defaults to 30s)
etcd_prefix path prefix (from etcd root), inside which all etcd nodes will be created (defaults to /torchelastic/p2p)

Custom Rendezvous

You must do the following to implement and use a custom rendezvous implementation,

  1. Implement the RendezvousHandler interface.
  2. Register the custom handler with torch.distributed.register_rendezvous_handler()
  3. Ensure that the registration happens before any calls to load the rendezvous object.

For an example, refer to `etcd_rendezvous.py <etcd_rendezvous.py>`__.

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