Source code for torch.tensor

import sys
import torch
import torch._C as _C
from collections import OrderedDict
import torch.utils.hooks as hooks
import warnings
import weakref
from torch._six import imap
from torch._C import _add_docstr
from numbers import Number

# NB: If you subclass Tensor, and want to share the subclassed class
# across processes, you must also update torch/multiprocessing/
# to define a ForkingPickler serialization mode for the class.
# NB: If you add a new method to Tensor, you must update
# torch/ to add a type annotation for your method;
# otherwise, it will not show up in autocomplete.
class Tensor(torch._C._TensorBase):
    def __deepcopy__(self, memo):
        if not self.is_leaf:
            raise RuntimeError("Only Tensors created explicitly by the user "
                               "(graph leaves) support the deepcopy protocol at the moment")
        if id(self) in memo:
            return memo[id(self)]
        with torch.no_grad():
            if self.is_sparse:
                new_tensor = self.clone()
                new_storage =
                new_tensor =
                new_tensor.set_(new_storage, self.storage_offset(), self.size(), self.stride())
            memo[id(self)] = new_tensor
            new_tensor.requires_grad = self.requires_grad
            return new_tensor

    def __reduce_ex__(self, proto):
        # See Note [Don't serialize hooks]
        args = (,
                OrderedDict())  # previously was self._backward_hooks
        return (torch._utils._rebuild_tensor_v2, args)

    def __setstate__(self, state):
        # Warning: this method is NOT called when you torch.load() a tensor;
        # that is managed by _rebuild_tensor_v2
        if not self.is_leaf:
            raise RuntimeError('__setstate__ can be only called on leaf Tensors')
        if len(state) == 4:
            # legacy serialization of Tensor
        elif len(state) == 5:
            # legacy serialization of Variable
   = state[0]
            state = (state[3], state[4], state[2])
        # The setting of _backward_hooks is expected to be a no-op.
        # See Note [Don't serialize hooks]
        self.requires_grad, _, self._backward_hooks = state

    def __repr__(self):
        # All strings are unicode in Python 3, while we have to encode unicode
        # strings in Python2. If we can't, let python decide the best
        # characters to replace unicode characters with.
        if sys.version_info > (3,):
            return torch._tensor_str._str(self)
            if hasattr(sys.stdout, 'encoding'):
                return torch._tensor_str._str(self).encode(
                    sys.stdout.encoding or 'UTF-8', 'replace')
                return torch._tensor_str._str(self).encode('UTF-8', 'replace')

[docs] def backward(self, gradient=None, retain_graph=None, create_graph=False): r"""Computes the gradient of current tensor w.r.t. graph leaves. The graph is differentiated using the chain rule. If the tensor is non-scalar (i.e. its data has more than one element) and requires gradient, the function additionally requires specifying ``gradient``. It should be a tensor of matching type and location, that contains the gradient of the differentiated function w.r.t. ``self``. This function accumulates gradients in the leaves - you might need to zero them before calling it. Arguments: gradient (Tensor or None): Gradient w.r.t. the tensor. If it is a tensor, it will be automatically converted to a Tensor that does not require grad unless ``create_graph`` is True. None values can be specified for scalar Tensors or ones that don't require grad. If a None value would be acceptable then this argument is optional. retain_graph (bool, optional): If ``False``, the graph used to compute the grads will be freed. Note that in nearly all cases setting this option to True is not needed and often can be worked around in a much more efficient way. Defaults to the value of ``create_graph``. create_graph (bool, optional): If ``True``, graph of the derivative will be constructed, allowing to compute higher order derivative products. Defaults to ``False``. """ torch.autograd.backward(self, gradient, retain_graph, create_graph)
[docs] def register_hook(self, hook): r"""Registers a backward hook. The hook will be called every time a gradient with respect to the Tensor is computed. The hook should have the following signature:: hook(grad) -> Tensor or None The hook should not modify its argument, but it can optionally return a new gradient which will be used in place of :attr:`grad`. This function returns a handle with a method ``handle.remove()`` that removes the hook from the module. Example:: >>> v = torch.tensor([0., 0., 0.], requires_grad=True) >>> h = v.register_hook(lambda grad: grad * 2) # double the gradient >>> v.backward(torch.tensor([1., 2., 3.])) >>> v.grad 2 4 6 [torch.FloatTensor of size (3,)] >>> h.remove() # removes the hook """ if not self.requires_grad: raise RuntimeError("cannot register a hook on a tensor that " "doesn't require gradient") if self._backward_hooks is None: self._backward_hooks = OrderedDict() if self.grad_fn is not None: self.grad_fn._register_hook_dict(self) handle = hooks.RemovableHandle(self._backward_hooks) self._backward_hooks[] = hook return handle
def reinforce(self, reward): def trim(str): return '\n'.join([line.strip() for line in str.split('\n')]) raise RuntimeError(trim(r"""reinforce() was removed. Use torch.distributions instead. See Instead of: probs = policy_network(state) action = probs.multinomial() next_state, reward = env.step(action) action.reinforce(reward) action.backward() Use: probs = policy_network(state) # NOTE: categorical is equivalent to what used to be called multinomial m = torch.distributions.Categorical(probs) action = m.sample() next_state, reward = env.step(action) loss = -m.log_prob(action) * reward loss.backward() """)) detach = _add_docstr(_C._TensorBase.detach, r""" Returns a new Tensor, detached from the current graph. The result will never require gradient. .. note:: Returned Tensor shares the same storage with the original one. In-place modifications on either of them will be seen, and may trigger errors in correctness checks. IMPORTANT NOTE: Previously, in-place size / stride / storage changes (such as `resize_` / `resize_as_` / `set_` / `transpose_`) to the returned tensor also update the original tensor. Now, these in-place changes will not update the original tensor anymore, and will instead trigger an error. For sparse tensors: In-place indices / values changes (such as `zero_` / `copy_` / `add_`) to the returned tensor will not update the original tensor anymore, and will instead trigger an error. """) detach_ = _add_docstr(_C._TensorBase.detach_, r""" Detaches the Tensor from the graph that created it, making it a leaf. Views cannot be detached in-place. """)
[docs] def retain_grad(self): r"""Enables .grad attribute for non-leaf Tensors.""" if self.grad_fn is None: # no-op for leaves return if not self.requires_grad: raise RuntimeError("can't retain_grad on Tensor that has requires_grad=False") if hasattr(self, 'retains_grad'): return weak_self = weakref.ref(self) def retain_grad_hook(grad): var = weak_self() if var is None: return if var._grad is None: var._grad = grad.clone() else: var._grad = var._grad + grad self.register_hook(retain_grad_hook) self.retains_grad = True
[docs] def is_pinned(self): r"""Returns true if this tensor resides in pinned memory""" storage = return storage.is_pinned() if storage else False
[docs] def is_shared(self): r"""Checks if tensor is in shared memory. This is always ``True`` for CUDA tensors. """ return
[docs] def share_memory_(self): r"""Moves the underlying storage to shared memory. This is a no-op if the underlying storage is already in shared memory and for CUDA tensors. Tensors in shared memory cannot be resized. """ return self
def __reversed__(self): r"""Reverses the tensor along dimension 0.""" if self.dim() == 0: return self else: return self.flip(0)
[docs] def norm(self, p="fro", dim=None, keepdim=False, dtype=None): r"""See :func:`torch.norm`""" return torch.norm(self, p, dim, keepdim, dtype=dtype)
[docs] def pstrf(self, upper=True): r"""See :func:`torch.pstrf`""" warnings.warn("torch.pstrf is deprecated in favour of torch.cholesky and will be removed " "in the next release.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).pstrf(upper=upper)
[docs] def potrf(self, upper=True): r"""See :func:`torch.cholesky`""" warnings.warn("torch.potrf is deprecated in favour of torch.cholesky and will be removed " "in the next release. Please use torch.cholesky instead and note that the " ":attr:`upper` argument in torch.cholesky defaults to ``False``.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).cholesky(upper=upper)
[docs] def potri(self, upper=True): r"""See :func:`torch.cholesky_inverse`""" warnings.warn("torch.potri is deprecated in favour of torch.cholesky_inverse and will be " "removed in the next release. Please use torch.cholesky_inverse instead and " "note that the :attr:`upper` argument in torch.cholesky_inverse defaults to " "``False``.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).cholesky_inverse(upper=upper)
[docs] def potrs(self, u, upper=True): r"""See :func:`torch.cholesky_solve`""" warnings.warn("torch.potrs is deprecated in favour of torch.cholesky_solve and " "will be removed in the next release. Please use torch.cholesky_solve instead " "and note that the :attr:`upper` argument in torch.cholesky_solve defaults " "to ``False``.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).cholesky_solve(u, upper=upper)
[docs] def gesv(self, A): r"""See :func:`torch.solve`""" warnings.warn("torch.gesv is deprecated in favour of torch.solve and will be removed in the " "next release. Please use torch.solve instead.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).solve(A)
[docs] def trtrs(self, A, upper=True, transpose=False, unitriangular=False): r"""See :func:`torch.triangular_solve`""" warnings.warn("torch.trtrs is deprecated in favour of torch.triangular_solve and will be " "removed in the next release. Please use torch.triangular_solve instead.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).triangular_solve(A, upper=upper, transpose=transpose, unitriangular=unitriangular)
[docs] def btrifact(self, pivot=True): r"""See :func:``""" warnings.warn("torch.btrifact is deprecated in favour of and will be removed in " "the next release. Please use instead.", stacklevel=2) return torch._lu_with_info(self, pivot=pivot, check_errors=True)
[docs] def btrifact_with_info(self, pivot=True): r"""See :func:``""" warnings.warn("torch.btrifact_with_info is deprecated in favour of with the " "get_infos argument and will be removed in the next release. Please use " " with the get_infos argument set to True instead.", stacklevel=2) return torch._lu_with_info(self, pivot=pivot, check_errors=False)
[docs] def btrisolve(self, LU_data, LU_pivots): r"""See :func:`torch.lu_solve`""" warnings.warn("torch.btrisolve is deprecated in favour of torch.lu_solve and will be " "removed in the next release. Please use torch.lu_solve instead.", stacklevel=2) return super(Tensor, self).lu_solve(LU_data=LU_data, LU_pivots=LU_pivots)
[docs] def lu(self, pivot=True, get_infos=False): r"""See :func:``""" # If get_infos is True, then we don't need to check for errors and vice versa LU, pivots, infos = torch._lu_with_info(self, pivot=pivot, check_errors=(not get_infos)) if get_infos: return LU, pivots, infos else: return LU, pivots
[docs] def stft(self, n_fft, hop_length=None, win_length=None, window=None, center=True, pad_mode='reflect', normalized=False, onesided=True): r"""See :func:`torch.stft` .. warning:: This function changed signature at version 0.4.1. Calling with the previous signature may cause error or return incorrect result. """ return torch.stft(self, n_fft, hop_length, win_length, window, center, pad_mode, normalized, onesided)
def resize(self, *sizes): warnings.warn("non-inplace resize is deprecated") from torch.autograd._functions import Resize return Resize.apply(self, sizes) def resize_as(self, tensor): warnings.warn("non-inplace resize_as is deprecated") from torch.autograd._functions import Resize return Resize.apply(self, tensor.size())
[docs] def split(self, split_size, dim=0): r"""See :func:`torch.split` """ if isinstance(split_size, int): return super(Tensor, self).split(split_size, dim) else: return super(Tensor, self).split_with_sizes(split_size, dim)
[docs] def unique(self, sorted=True, return_inverse=False, return_counts=False, dim=None): r"""Returns the unique elements of the input tensor. See :func:`torch.unique` """ return torch.unique(self, sorted=sorted, return_inverse=return_inverse, return_counts=return_counts, dim=dim)
[docs] def unique_consecutive(self, return_inverse=False, return_counts=False, dim=None): r"""Eliminates all but the first element from every consecutive group of equivalent elements. See :func:`torch.unique_consecutive` """ return torch.unique_consecutive(self, return_inverse=return_inverse, return_counts=return_counts, dim=dim)
def __rsub__(self, other): return _C._VariableFunctions.rsub(self, other) def __rdiv__(self, other): if self.dtype.is_floating_point: return self.reciprocal() * other else: return (self.double().reciprocal() * other).type_as(self) __rtruediv__ = __rdiv__ __itruediv__ = _C._TensorBase.__idiv__ __pow__ = _C._TensorBase.pow def __format__(self, format_spec): if self.dim() == 0: return self.item().__format__(format_spec) return object.__format__(self, format_spec) def __ipow__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError("in-place pow not implemented") def __rpow__(self, other): return self.new_tensor(other) ** self def __floordiv__(self, other): result = self / other if result.dtype.is_floating_point: result = result.trunc() return result def __rfloordiv__(self, other): result = other / self if result.dtype.is_floating_point: result = result.trunc() return result __neg__ = _C._TensorBase.neg __eq__ = _C._TensorBase.eq __ne__ = __lt__ = __le__ = _C._TensorBase.le __gt__ = __ge__ = __abs__ = _C._TensorBase.abs def __len__(self): if self.dim() == 0: raise TypeError("len() of a 0-d tensor") return self.shape[0] def __iter__(self): # NB: we use 'imap' and not 'map' here, so that in Python 2 we get a # generator and don't eagerly perform all the indexes. This could # save us work, and also helps keep trace ordering deterministic # (e.g., if you zip(*hiddens), the eager map will force all the # indexes of hiddens[0] before hiddens[1], while the generator # map will interleave them.) if self.dim() == 0: raise TypeError('iteration over a 0-d tensor') if torch._C._get_tracing_state(): warnings.warn('Iterating over a tensor might cause the trace to be incorrect. ' 'Passing a tensor of different shape won\'t change the number of ' 'iterations executed (and might lead to errors or silently give ' 'incorrect results).', category=RuntimeWarning) return iter(imap(lambda i: self[i], range(self.size(0)))) def __hash__(self): return id(self) def __dir__(self): tensor_methods = dir(self.__class__) tensor_methods.remove('volatile') # deprecated attrs = list(self.__dict__.keys()) keys = tensor_methods + attrs # property only available dense, cuda tensors if (not self.is_cuda) or self.is_sparse: keys.remove("__cuda_array_interface__") return sorted(keys) # Numpy array interface, to support `numpy.asarray(tensor) -> ndarray` __array_priority__ = 1000 # prefer Tensor ops over numpy ones def __array__(self, dtype=None): if dtype is None: return self.numpy() else: return self.numpy().astype(dtype, copy=False) # Wrap Numpy array again in a suitable tensor when done, to support e.g. # `numpy.sin(tensor) -> tensor` or `numpy.greater(tensor, 0) -> ByteTensor` def __array_wrap__(self, array): if array.dtype == bool: # Workaround, torch has no built-in bool tensor array = array.astype('uint8') return torch.from_numpy(array) def __contains__(self, element): r"""Check if `element` is present in tensor Arguments: element (Tensor or scalar): element to be checked for presence in current tensor" """ if isinstance(element, (torch.Tensor, Number)): return (element == self).any().item() return NotImplemented @property def __cuda_array_interface__(self): """Array view description for cuda tensors. See: """ # raise AttributeError for unsupported tensors, so that # hasattr(cpu_tensor, "__cuda_array_interface__") is False. if not self.is_cuda: raise AttributeError( "Can't get __cuda_array_interface__ on non-CUDA tensor type: %s " "If CUDA data is required use tensor.cuda() to copy tensor to device memory." % self.type() ) if self.is_sparse: raise AttributeError( "Can't get __cuda_array_interface__ on sparse type: %s " "Use Tensor.to_dense() to convert to a dense tensor first." % self.type() ) # RuntimeError, matching tensor.__array__() behavior. if self.requires_grad: raise RuntimeError( "Can't get __cuda_array_interface__ on Variable that requires grad. " "If gradients aren't required, use var.detach() to get Variable that doesn't require grad." ) # CUDA devices are little-endian and tensors are stored in native byte # order. 1-byte entries are endian-agnostic. typestr = { torch.float16: "<f2", torch.float32: "<f4", torch.float64: "<f8", torch.uint8: "|u1", torch.int8: "|i1", torch.int16: "<i2", torch.int32: "<i4", torch.int64: "<i8", }[self.dtype] itemsize = shape = self.shape strides = tuple(s * itemsize for s in self.stride()) data = (self.data_ptr(), False) # read-only is false return dict(typestr=typestr, shape=shape, strides=strides, data=data, version=0) __module__ = 'torch'


Access comprehensive developer documentation for PyTorch

View Docs


Get in-depth tutorials for beginners and advanced developers

View Tutorials


Find development resources and get your questions answered

View Resources