torch.vmap(func, in_dims=0, out_dims=0)[source]

vmap is the vectorizing map. Returns a new function that maps func over some dimension of the inputs. Semantically, vmap pushes the map into PyTorch operations called by func, effectively vectorizing those operations.

vmap is useful for handling batch dimensions: one can write a function func that runs on examples and then lift it to a function that can take batches of examples with vmap(func). vmap can also be used to compute batched gradients when composed with autograd.


We are actively developing a different and improved vmap prototype here. The improved prototype is able to arbitrarily compose with gradient computation. Please give that a try if that is what you’re looking for.

Furthermore, if you’re interested in using vmap for your use case, please contact us! We’re interested in gathering feedback from early adopters to inform the design.


torch.vmap is an experimental prototype that is subject to change and/or deletion. Please use at your own risk.

  • func (function) – A Python function that takes one or more arguments. Must return one or more Tensors.

  • in_dims (int or nested structure) – Specifies which dimension of the inputs should be mapped over. in_dims should have a structure like the inputs. If the in_dim for a particular input is None, then that indicates there is no map dimension. Default: 0.

  • out_dims (int or Tuple[int]) – Specifies where the mapped dimension should appear in the outputs. If out_dims is a Tuple, then it should have one element per output. Default: 0.


Returns a new “batched” function. It takes the same inputs as func, except each input has an extra dimension at the index specified by in_dims. It takes returns the same outputs as func, except each output has an extra dimension at the index specified by out_dims.

One example of using vmap is to compute batched dot products. PyTorch doesn’t provide a batched API; instead of unsuccessfully rummaging through docs, use vmap to construct a new function.

>>>                            # [D], [D] -> []
>>> batched_dot = torch.vmap(  # [N, D], [N, D] -> [N]
>>> x, y = torch.randn(2, 5), torch.randn(2, 5)
>>> batched_dot(x, y)

vmap can be helpful in hiding batch dimensions, leading to a simpler model authoring experience.

>>> batch_size, feature_size = 3, 5
>>> weights = torch.randn(feature_size, requires_grad=True)
>>> def model(feature_vec):
>>>     # Very simple linear model with activation
>>>     return
>>> examples = torch.randn(batch_size, feature_size)
>>> result = torch.vmap(model)(examples)

vmap can also help vectorize computations that were previously difficult or impossible to batch. One example is higher-order gradient computation. The PyTorch autograd engine computes vjps (vector-Jacobian products). Computing a full Jacobian matrix for some function f: R^N -> R^N usually requires N calls to autograd.grad, one per Jacobian row. Using vmap, we can vectorize the whole computation, computing the Jacobian in a single call to autograd.grad.

>>> # Setup
>>> N = 5
>>> f = lambda x: x ** 2
>>> x = torch.randn(N, requires_grad=True)
>>> y = f(x)
>>> I_N = torch.eye(N)
>>> # Sequential approach
>>> jacobian_rows = [torch.autograd.grad(y, x, v, retain_graph=True)[0]
>>>                  for v in I_N.unbind()]
>>> jacobian = torch.stack(jacobian_rows)
>>> # vectorized gradient computation
>>> def get_vjp(v):
>>>     return torch.autograd.grad(y, x, v)
>>> jacobian = torch.vmap(get_vjp)(I_N)


vmap does not provide general autobatching or handle variable-length sequences out of the box.


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