# Source code for torch.nn.modules.batchnorm

```
import torch
from torch import Tensor
from ._functions import SyncBatchNorm as sync_batch_norm
from .module import Module
from torch.nn.parameter import Parameter
from .. import functional as F
from .. import init
from typing import Optional, Any
class _NormBase(Module):
"""Common base of _InstanceNorm and _BatchNorm"""
_version = 2
__constants__ = ['track_running_stats', 'momentum', 'eps',
'num_features', 'affine']
num_features: int
eps: float
momentum: float
affine: bool
track_running_stats: bool
# WARNING: weight and bias purposely not defined here.
# See https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch/issues/39670
def __init__(
self,
num_features: int,
eps: float = 1e-5,
momentum: float = 0.1,
affine: bool = True,
track_running_stats: bool = True
) -> None:
super(_NormBase, self).__init__()
self.num_features = num_features
self.eps = eps
self.momentum = momentum
self.affine = affine
self.track_running_stats = track_running_stats
if self.affine:
self.weight = Parameter(torch.Tensor(num_features))
self.bias = Parameter(torch.Tensor(num_features))
else:
self.register_parameter('weight', None)
self.register_parameter('bias', None)
if self.track_running_stats:
self.register_buffer('running_mean', torch.zeros(num_features))
self.register_buffer('running_var', torch.ones(num_features))
self.register_buffer('num_batches_tracked', torch.tensor(0, dtype=torch.long))
else:
self.register_parameter('running_mean', None)
self.register_parameter('running_var', None)
self.register_parameter('num_batches_tracked', None)
self.reset_parameters()
def reset_running_stats(self) -> None:
if self.track_running_stats:
# running_mean/running_var/num_batches... are registerd at runtime depending
# if self.track_running_stats is on
self.running_mean.zero_() # type: ignore[operator]
self.running_var.fill_(1) # type: ignore[operator]
self.num_batches_tracked.zero_() # type: ignore[operator]
def reset_parameters(self) -> None:
self.reset_running_stats()
if self.affine:
init.ones_(self.weight)
init.zeros_(self.bias)
def _check_input_dim(self, input):
raise NotImplementedError
def extra_repr(self):
return '{num_features}, eps={eps}, momentum={momentum}, affine={affine}, ' \
'track_running_stats={track_running_stats}'.format(**self.__dict__)
def _load_from_state_dict(self, state_dict, prefix, local_metadata, strict,
missing_keys, unexpected_keys, error_msgs):
version = local_metadata.get('version', None)
if (version is None or version < 2) and self.track_running_stats:
# at version 2: added num_batches_tracked buffer
# this should have a default value of 0
num_batches_tracked_key = prefix + 'num_batches_tracked'
if num_batches_tracked_key not in state_dict:
state_dict[num_batches_tracked_key] = torch.tensor(0, dtype=torch.long)
super(_NormBase, self)._load_from_state_dict(
state_dict, prefix, local_metadata, strict,
missing_keys, unexpected_keys, error_msgs)
class _BatchNorm(_NormBase):
def __init__(self, num_features, eps=1e-5, momentum=0.1, affine=True,
track_running_stats=True):
super(_BatchNorm, self).__init__(
num_features, eps, momentum, affine, track_running_stats)
def forward(self, input: Tensor) -> Tensor:
self._check_input_dim(input)
# exponential_average_factor is set to self.momentum
# (when it is available) only so that it gets updated
# in ONNX graph when this node is exported to ONNX.
if self.momentum is None:
exponential_average_factor = 0.0
else:
exponential_average_factor = self.momentum
if self.training and self.track_running_stats:
# TODO: if statement only here to tell the jit to skip emitting this when it is None
if self.num_batches_tracked is not None: # type: ignore
self.num_batches_tracked = self.num_batches_tracked + 1 # type: ignore
if self.momentum is None: # use cumulative moving average
exponential_average_factor = 1.0 / float(self.num_batches_tracked)
else: # use exponential moving average
exponential_average_factor = self.momentum
r"""
Decide whether the mini-batch stats should be used for normalization rather than the buffers.
Mini-batch stats are used in training mode, and in eval mode when buffers are None.
"""
if self.training:
bn_training = True
else:
bn_training = (self.running_mean is None) and (self.running_var is None)
r"""
Buffers are only updated if they are to be tracked and we are in training mode. Thus they only need to be
passed when the update should occur (i.e. in training mode when they are tracked), or when buffer stats are
used for normalization (i.e. in eval mode when buffers are not None).
"""
assert self.running_mean is None or isinstance(self.running_mean, torch.Tensor)
assert self.running_var is None or isinstance(self.running_var, torch.Tensor)
return F.batch_norm(
input,
# If buffers are not to be tracked, ensure that they won't be updated
self.running_mean if not self.training or self.track_running_stats else None,
self.running_var if not self.training or self.track_running_stats else None,
self.weight, self.bias, bn_training, exponential_average_factor, self.eps)
class BatchNorm1d(_BatchNorm):
r"""Applies Batch Normalization over a 2D or 3D input (a mini-batch of 1D
inputs with optional additional channel dimension) as described in the paper
`Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing
Internal Covariate Shift <https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03167>`__ .
.. math::
y = \frac{x - \mathrm{E}[x]}{\sqrt{\mathrm{Var}[x] + \epsilon}} * \gamma + \beta
The mean and standard-deviation are calculated per-dimension over
the mini-batches and :math:`\gamma` and :math:`\beta` are learnable parameter vectors
of size `C` (where `C` is the input size). By default, the elements of :math:`\gamma` are set
to 1 and the elements of :math:`\beta` are set to 0. The standard-deviation is calculated
via the biased estimator, equivalent to `torch.var(input, unbiased=False)`.
Also by default, during training this layer keeps running estimates of its
computed mean and variance, which are then used for normalization during
evaluation. The running estimates are kept with a default :attr:`momentum`
of 0.1.
If :attr:`track_running_stats` is set to ``False``, this layer then does not
keep running estimates, and batch statistics are instead used during
evaluation time as well.
.. note::
This :attr:`momentum` argument is different from one used in optimizer
classes and the conventional notion of momentum. Mathematically, the
update rule for running statistics here is
:math:`\hat{x}_\text{new} = (1 - \text{momentum}) \times \hat{x} + \text{momentum} \times x_t`,
where :math:`\hat{x}` is the estimated statistic and :math:`x_t` is the
new observed value.
Because the Batch Normalization is done over the `C` dimension, computing statistics
on `(N, L)` slices, it's common terminology to call this Temporal Batch Normalization.
Args:
num_features: :math:`C` from an expected input of size
:math:`(N, C, L)` or :math:`L` from input of size :math:`(N, L)`
eps: a value added to the denominator for numerical stability.
Default: 1e-5
momentum: the value used for the running_mean and running_var
computation. Can be set to ``None`` for cumulative moving average
(i.e. simple average). Default: 0.1
affine: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this module has
learnable affine parameters. Default: ``True``
track_running_stats: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this
module tracks the running mean and variance, and when set to ``False``,
this module does not track such statistics, and initializes statistics
buffers :attr:`running_mean` and :attr:`running_var` as ``None``.
When these buffers are ``None``, this module always uses batch statistics.
in both training and eval modes. Default: ``True``
Shape:
- Input: :math:`(N, C)` or :math:`(N, C, L)`
- Output: :math:`(N, C)` or :math:`(N, C, L)` (same shape as input)
Examples::
>>> # With Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm1d(100)
>>> # Without Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm1d(100, affine=False)
>>> input = torch.randn(20, 100)
>>> output = m(input)
"""
def _check_input_dim(self, input):
if input.dim() != 2 and input.dim() != 3:
raise ValueError('expected 2D or 3D input (got {}D input)'
.format(input.dim()))
class BatchNorm2d(_BatchNorm):
r"""Applies Batch Normalization over a 4D input (a mini-batch of 2D inputs
with additional channel dimension) as described in the paper
`Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing
Internal Covariate Shift <https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03167>`__ .
.. math::
y = \frac{x - \mathrm{E}[x]}{ \sqrt{\mathrm{Var}[x] + \epsilon}} * \gamma + \beta
The mean and standard-deviation are calculated per-dimension over
the mini-batches and :math:`\gamma` and :math:`\beta` are learnable parameter vectors
of size `C` (where `C` is the input size). By default, the elements of :math:`\gamma` are set
to 1 and the elements of :math:`\beta` are set to 0. The standard-deviation is calculated
via the biased estimator, equivalent to `torch.var(input, unbiased=False)`.
Also by default, during training this layer keeps running estimates of its
computed mean and variance, which are then used for normalization during
evaluation. The running estimates are kept with a default :attr:`momentum`
of 0.1.
If :attr:`track_running_stats` is set to ``False``, this layer then does not
keep running estimates, and batch statistics are instead used during
evaluation time as well.
.. note::
This :attr:`momentum` argument is different from one used in optimizer
classes and the conventional notion of momentum. Mathematically, the
update rule for running statistics here is
:math:`\hat{x}_\text{new} = (1 - \text{momentum}) \times \hat{x} + \text{momentum} \times x_t`,
where :math:`\hat{x}` is the estimated statistic and :math:`x_t` is the
new observed value.
Because the Batch Normalization is done over the `C` dimension, computing statistics
on `(N, H, W)` slices, it's common terminology to call this Spatial Batch Normalization.
Args:
num_features: :math:`C` from an expected input of size
:math:`(N, C, H, W)`
eps: a value added to the denominator for numerical stability.
Default: 1e-5
momentum: the value used for the running_mean and running_var
computation. Can be set to ``None`` for cumulative moving average
(i.e. simple average). Default: 0.1
affine: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this module has
learnable affine parameters. Default: ``True``
track_running_stats: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this
module tracks the running mean and variance, and when set to ``False``,
this module does not track such statistics, and initializes statistics
buffers :attr:`running_mean` and :attr:`running_var` as ``None``.
When these buffers are ``None``, this module always uses batch statistics.
in both training and eval modes. Default: ``True``
Shape:
- Input: :math:`(N, C, H, W)`
- Output: :math:`(N, C, H, W)` (same shape as input)
Examples::
>>> # With Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm2d(100)
>>> # Without Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm2d(100, affine=False)
>>> input = torch.randn(20, 100, 35, 45)
>>> output = m(input)
"""
def _check_input_dim(self, input):
if input.dim() != 4:
raise ValueError('expected 4D input (got {}D input)'
.format(input.dim()))
class BatchNorm3d(_BatchNorm):
r"""Applies Batch Normalization over a 5D input (a mini-batch of 3D inputs
with additional channel dimension) as described in the paper
`Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing
Internal Covariate Shift <https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03167>`__ .
.. math::
y = \frac{x - \mathrm{E}[x]}{ \sqrt{\mathrm{Var}[x] + \epsilon}} * \gamma + \beta
The mean and standard-deviation are calculated per-dimension over
the mini-batches and :math:`\gamma` and :math:`\beta` are learnable parameter vectors
of size `C` (where `C` is the input size). By default, the elements of :math:`\gamma` are set
to 1 and the elements of :math:`\beta` are set to 0. The standard-deviation is calculated
via the biased estimator, equivalent to `torch.var(input, unbiased=False)`.
Also by default, during training this layer keeps running estimates of its
computed mean and variance, which are then used for normalization during
evaluation. The running estimates are kept with a default :attr:`momentum`
of 0.1.
If :attr:`track_running_stats` is set to ``False``, this layer then does not
keep running estimates, and batch statistics are instead used during
evaluation time as well.
.. note::
This :attr:`momentum` argument is different from one used in optimizer
classes and the conventional notion of momentum. Mathematically, the
update rule for running statistics here is
:math:`\hat{x}_\text{new} = (1 - \text{momentum}) \times \hat{x} + \text{momentum} \times x_t`,
where :math:`\hat{x}` is the estimated statistic and :math:`x_t` is the
new observed value.
Because the Batch Normalization is done over the `C` dimension, computing statistics
on `(N, D, H, W)` slices, it's common terminology to call this Volumetric Batch Normalization
or Spatio-temporal Batch Normalization.
Args:
num_features: :math:`C` from an expected input of size
:math:`(N, C, D, H, W)`
eps: a value added to the denominator for numerical stability.
Default: 1e-5
momentum: the value used for the running_mean and running_var
computation. Can be set to ``None`` for cumulative moving average
(i.e. simple average). Default: 0.1
affine: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this module has
learnable affine parameters. Default: ``True``
track_running_stats: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this
module tracks the running mean and variance, and when set to ``False``,
this module does not track such statistics, and initializes statistics
buffers :attr:`running_mean` and :attr:`running_var` as ``None``.
When these buffers are ``None``, this module always uses batch statistics.
in both training and eval modes. Default: ``True``
Shape:
- Input: :math:`(N, C, D, H, W)`
- Output: :math:`(N, C, D, H, W)` (same shape as input)
Examples::
>>> # With Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm3d(100)
>>> # Without Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm3d(100, affine=False)
>>> input = torch.randn(20, 100, 35, 45, 10)
>>> output = m(input)
"""
def _check_input_dim(self, input):
if input.dim() != 5:
raise ValueError('expected 5D input (got {}D input)'
.format(input.dim()))
[docs]class SyncBatchNorm(_BatchNorm):
r"""Applies Batch Normalization over a N-Dimensional input (a mini-batch of [N-2]D inputs
with additional channel dimension) as described in the paper
`Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing
Internal Covariate Shift <https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03167>`__ .
.. math::
y = \frac{x - \mathrm{E}[x]}{ \sqrt{\mathrm{Var}[x] + \epsilon}} * \gamma + \beta
The mean and standard-deviation are calculated per-dimension over all
mini-batches of the same process groups. :math:`\gamma` and :math:`\beta`
are learnable parameter vectors of size `C` (where `C` is the input size).
By default, the elements of :math:`\gamma` are sampled from
:math:`\mathcal{U}(0, 1)` and the elements of :math:`\beta` are set to 0.
The standard-deviation is calculated via the biased estimator, equivalent to
`torch.var(input, unbiased=False)`.
Also by default, during training this layer keeps running estimates of its
computed mean and variance, which are then used for normalization during
evaluation. The running estimates are kept with a default :attr:`momentum`
of 0.1.
If :attr:`track_running_stats` is set to ``False``, this layer then does not
keep running estimates, and batch statistics are instead used during
evaluation time as well.
.. note::
This :attr:`momentum` argument is different from one used in optimizer
classes and the conventional notion of momentum. Mathematically, the
update rule for running statistics here is
:math:`\hat{x}_\text{new} = (1 - \text{momentum}) \times \hat{x} + \text{momentum} \times x_t`,
where :math:`\hat{x}` is the estimated statistic and :math:`x_t` is the
new observed value.
Because the Batch Normalization is done for each channel in the ``C`` dimension, computing
statistics on ``(N, +)`` slices, it's common terminology to call this Volumetric Batch
Normalization or Spatio-temporal Batch Normalization.
Currently :class:`SyncBatchNorm` only supports
:class:`~torch.nn.DistributedDataParallel` (DDP) with single GPU per process. Use
:meth:`torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm.convert_sync_batchnorm()` to convert
:attr:`BatchNorm*D` layer to :class:`SyncBatchNorm` before wrapping
Network with DDP.
Args:
num_features: :math:`C` from an expected input of size
:math:`(N, C, +)`
eps: a value added to the denominator for numerical stability.
Default: ``1e-5``
momentum: the value used for the running_mean and running_var
computation. Can be set to ``None`` for cumulative moving average
(i.e. simple average). Default: 0.1
affine: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this module has
learnable affine parameters. Default: ``True``
track_running_stats: a boolean value that when set to ``True``, this
module tracks the running mean and variance, and when set to ``False``,
this module does not track such statistics, and initializes statistics
buffers :attr:`running_mean` and :attr:`running_var` as ``None``.
When these buffers are ``None``, this module always uses batch statistics.
in both training and eval modes. Default: ``True``
process_group: synchronization of stats happen within each process group
individually. Default behavior is synchronization across the whole
world
Shape:
- Input: :math:`(N, C, +)`
- Output: :math:`(N, C, +)` (same shape as input)
Examples::
>>> # With Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.SyncBatchNorm(100)
>>> # creating process group (optional)
>>> # process_ids is a list of int identifying rank ids.
>>> process_group = torch.distributed.new_group(process_ids)
>>> # Without Learnable Parameters
>>> m = nn.BatchNorm3d(100, affine=False, process_group=process_group)
>>> input = torch.randn(20, 100, 35, 45, 10)
>>> output = m(input)
>>> # network is nn.BatchNorm layer
>>> sync_bn_network = nn.SyncBatchNorm.convert_sync_batchnorm(network, process_group)
>>> # only single gpu per process is currently supported
>>> ddp_sync_bn_network = torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel(
>>> sync_bn_network,
>>> device_ids=[args.local_rank],
>>> output_device=args.local_rank)
"""
def __init__(
self,
num_features: int,
eps: float = 1e-5,
momentum: float = 0.1,
affine: bool = True,
track_running_stats: bool = True,
process_group: Optional[Any] = None
) -> None:
super(SyncBatchNorm, self).__init__(num_features, eps, momentum, affine, track_running_stats)
self.process_group = process_group
# gpu_size is set through DistributedDataParallel initialization. This is to ensure that SyncBatchNorm is used
# under supported condition (single GPU per process)
self.ddp_gpu_size = None
def _check_input_dim(self, input):
if input.dim() < 2:
raise ValueError('expected at least 2D input (got {}D input)'
.format(input.dim()))
def _specify_ddp_gpu_num(self, gpu_size):
if gpu_size > 1:
raise ValueError('SyncBatchNorm is only supported for DDP with single GPU per process')
self.ddp_gpu_size = gpu_size
def forward(self, input: Tensor) -> Tensor:
# currently only GPU input is supported
if not input.is_cuda:
raise ValueError('SyncBatchNorm expected input tensor to be on GPU')
self._check_input_dim(input)
# exponential_average_factor is set to self.momentum
# (when it is available) only so that it gets updated
# in ONNX graph when this node is exported to ONNX.
if self.momentum is None:
exponential_average_factor = 0.0
else:
exponential_average_factor = self.momentum
if self.training and self.track_running_stats:
assert self.num_batches_tracked is not None
self.num_batches_tracked = self.num_batches_tracked + 1
if self.momentum is None: # use cumulative moving average
exponential_average_factor = 1.0 / self.num_batches_tracked.item()
else: # use exponential moving average
exponential_average_factor = self.momentum
r"""
Decide whether the mini-batch stats should be used for normalization rather than the buffers.
Mini-batch stats are used in training mode, and in eval mode when buffers are None.
"""
if self.training:
bn_training = True
else:
bn_training = (self.running_mean is None) and (self.running_var is None)
r"""
Buffers are only updated if they are to be tracked and we are in training mode. Thus they only need to be
passed when the update should occur (i.e. in training mode when they are tracked), or when buffer stats are
used for normalization (i.e. in eval mode when buffers are not None).
"""
# If buffers are not to be tracked, ensure that they won't be updated
assert self.running_mean is None or isinstance(self.running_mean, torch.Tensor)
assert self.running_var is None or isinstance(self.running_var, torch.Tensor)
running_mean = self.running_mean if not self.training or self.track_running_stats else None
running_var = self.running_var if not self.training or self.track_running_stats else None
need_sync = bn_training
if need_sync:
process_group = torch.distributed.group.WORLD
if self.process_group:
process_group = self.process_group
world_size = torch.distributed.get_world_size(process_group)
need_sync = world_size > 1
# fallback to framework BN when synchronization is not necessary
if not need_sync:
return F.batch_norm(
input, running_mean, running_var, self.weight, self.bias,
bn_training, exponential_average_factor, self.eps)
else:
if not self.ddp_gpu_size:
raise AttributeError('SyncBatchNorm is only supported within torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel')
assert bn_training
return sync_batch_norm.apply(
input, self.weight, self.bias, running_mean, running_var,
self.eps, exponential_average_factor, process_group, world_size)
[docs] @classmethod
def convert_sync_batchnorm(cls, module, process_group=None):
r"""Helper function to convert all :attr:`BatchNorm*D` layers in the model to
:class:`torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm` layers.
Args:
module (nn.Module): module containing one or more attr:`BatchNorm*D` layers
process_group (optional): process group to scope synchronization,
default is the whole world
Returns:
The original :attr:`module` with the converted :class:`torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm`
layers. If the original :attr:`module` is a :attr:`BatchNorm*D` layer,
a new :class:`torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm` layer object will be returned
instead.
Example::
>>> # Network with nn.BatchNorm layer
>>> module = torch.nn.Sequential(
>>> torch.nn.Linear(20, 100),
>>> torch.nn.BatchNorm1d(100),
>>> ).cuda()
>>> # creating process group (optional)
>>> # process_ids is a list of int identifying rank ids.
>>> process_group = torch.distributed.new_group(process_ids)
>>> sync_bn_module = torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm.convert_sync_batchnorm(module, process_group)
"""
module_output = module
if isinstance(module, torch.nn.modules.batchnorm._BatchNorm):
module_output = torch.nn.SyncBatchNorm(module.num_features,
module.eps, module.momentum,
module.affine,
module.track_running_stats,
process_group)
if module.affine:
with torch.no_grad():
module_output.weight = module.weight
module_output.bias = module.bias
module_output.running_mean = module.running_mean
module_output.running_var = module.running_var
module_output.num_batches_tracked = module.num_batches_tracked
if hasattr(module, "qconfig"):
module_output.qconfig = module.qconfig
for name, child in module.named_children():
module_output.add_module(name, cls.convert_sync_batchnorm(child, process_group))
del module
return module_output
```