Multiprocessing best practices

torch.multiprocessing is a drop in replacement for Python’s multiprocessing module. It supports the exact same operations, but extends it, so that all tensors sent through a multiprocessing.Queue, will have their data moved into shared memory and will only send a handle to another process.


When a Variable is sent to another process, both the and are going to be shared.

This allows to implement various training methods, like Hogwild, A3C, or any others that require asynchronous operation.

Sharing CUDA tensors

Sharing CUDA tensors between processes is supported only in Python 3, using a spawn or forkserver start methods. multiprocessing in Python 2 can only create subprocesses using fork, and it’s not supported by the CUDA runtime.


CUDA API requires that the allocation exported to other processes remains valid as long as it’s used by them. You should be careful and ensure that CUDA tensors you shared don’t go out of scope as long as it’s necessary. This shouldn’t be a problem for sharing model parameters, but passing other kinds of data should be done with care. Note that this restriction doesn’t apply to shared CPU memory.

See also: Use nn.DataParallel instead of multiprocessing

Best practices and tips

Avoiding and fighting deadlocks

There are a lot of things that can go wrong when a new process is spawned, with the most common cause of deadlocks being background threads. If there’s any thread that holds a lock or imports a module, and fork is called, it’s very likely that the subprocess will be in a corrupted state and will deadlock or fail in a different way. Note that even if you don’t, Python built in libraries do - no need to look further than multiprocessing. multiprocessing.Queue is actually a very complex class, that spawns multiple threads used to serialize, send and receive objects, and they can cause aforementioned problems too. If you find yourself in such situation try using a multiprocessing.queues.SimpleQueue, that doesn’t use any additional threads.

We’re trying our best to make it easy for you and ensure these deadlocks don’t happen but some things are out of our control. If you have any issues you can’t cope with for a while, try reaching out on forums, and we’ll see if it’s an issue we can fix.

Reuse buffers passed through a Queue

Remember that each time you put a Tensor into a multiprocessing.Queue, it has to be moved into shared memory. If it’s already shared, it is a no-op, otherwise it will incur an additional memory copy that can slow down the whole process. Even if you have a pool of processes sending data to a single one, make it send the buffers back - this is nearly free and will let you avoid a copy when sending next batch.

Asynchronous multiprocess training (e.g. Hogwild)

Using torch.multiprocessing, it is possible to train a model asynchronously, with parameters either shared all the time, or being periodically synchronized. In the first case, we recommend sending over the whole model object, while in the latter, we advise to only send the state_dict().

We recommend using multiprocessing.Queue for passing all kinds of PyTorch objects between processes. It is possible to e.g. inherit the tensors and storages already in shared memory, when using the fork start method, however it is very bug prone and should be used with care, and only by advanced users. Queues, even though they’re sometimes a less elegant solution, will work properly in all cases.


You should be careful about having global statements, that are not guarded with an if __name__ == '__main__'. If a different start method than fork is used, they will be executed in all subprocesses.


A concrete Hogwild implementation can be found in the examples repository, but to showcase the overall structure of the code, there’s also a minimal example below as well:

import torch.multiprocessing as mp
from model import MyModel

def train(model):
    # Construct data_loader, optimizer, etc.
    for data, labels in data_loader:
        loss_fn(model(data), labels).backward()
        optimizer.step()  # This will update the shared parameters

if __name__ == '__main__':
    num_processes = 4
    model = MyModel()
    # NOTE: this is required for the ``fork`` method to work
    processes = []
    for rank in range(num_processes):
        p = mp.Process(target=train, args=(model,))
    for p in processes: